Uniquely singapore education courting the tourist dollar
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Uniquely Singapore Education Courting the Tourist Dollar. Yang Shuang Yu Tian Tong Xueyin Justinian Tnag. Meritocracy. Definition :

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Uniquely singapore education courting the tourist dollar

Uniquely SingaporeEducationCourting the Tourist Dollar

Yang Shuang

Yu Tian

Tong Xueyin

Justinian Tnag


Meritocracy

Meritocracy

  • Definition:

    ‘Meritocracy is a fundamental ideology in Singapore and a fundamental principle in the education system which aims to identify and groom bright young students for positions of leadership.

    The system places a great emphasis on academic performance in grading students and granting their admission to special programmes and universities.’


Meritocracy1

Meritocracy

  • Basic guiding principle of Singapore’s governance as well as education

  • Evidence:

  • Various scholarships and bursaries

    - e.g. PSC scholarship; NUS- Singapore Lions' Club Bursary Award

  • Divide students into different streams since secondary and even primary schools

    e.g. Express/normal streams


Meritocracy2

Meritocracy

  • History of meritocracy

  • Originated from Ancient China

  • Confucianism: the first merit-based civil service system existed in the imperial bureaucracy of China

  • Spread from China to the West during the Enlightenment


Meritocracy3

Meritocracy

  • Why Singapore adopts meritocracy

  • Traditional views of the founding fathers of Singapore

  • Ensure social equality especially in a multi-racial society

  • Important in the building of nation

  • Ensure fairness


Meritocracy4

Meritocracy

Merits

  • Efficient use of resources

    - Resources are given to people who have the ability to make best use of it

  • Ensure social mobility

    - Students from lower socio-economical backgrounds can improve their status through their own hard work


Meritocracy5

Meritocracy

Demerits

  • Statistics have show that it may actually reduce social mobility

    • More than half of the parents of students in RI have university education,while the highest percentage in neighborhood school is 13.7%

    • May lead to social stratification


Meritocracy6

Meritocracy

  • Meritocracy may not be just since:

  • Different standards of merits are involved

    - Academic vs. Leadership

  • Some factors are out of our control (e.g. social status, inherited wealth, etc.)

    - A study by Ghent University has even shown that Children who are first in birth order are more likely to be hard working


Elitism

Elitism

  • Leading to elitism

  • Evidence in Singapore:

    - Parents are willing to do community service and even move their homes in order to get their children into good primary schools

    - Concentration of educational resources in top schools such as RI

    - Special Programmes (such as SMTP)


Elitism1

Elitism

  • Danger of elitism

  • Branding of students

  • Complacency and intellectual snobbery

  • Lack of appreciation towards the society

    A debatable case: the Wee Shu Min elitism controversy


Elitism2

Elitism

  • The Wee Shu Min elitism controversy

    On 21 Oct 2006, Wee Shu Min, the daughter of Ang Mo Kio GRC MP Wee Siew Kim, who was also a RJ graduates, was slammed by netizens for her elitist and naïve comments on the blog of Derek Wee who voiced his concerns on job security and age discrimination


Elitism3

Elitism

  • Wee Shu Min (left)

    called Derek a "stupid crackpot", belonging to "the sadder class" and overreliant on the government. Her post also called for Derek to "get out of my elite uncaring face”.


Pragmatism

Pragmatism

  • An important guiding principle in Singapore’s politics and education

  • ‘Westerners value the freedoms and liberties of the individual. As an Asian of Chinese cultural background, my values are for a government which is honest, effective and efficient.’

    - Lee Kuan Yew


Pragmatism1

Pragmatism

  • Why Singapore adopts pragmatism

  • Lack of natural resources

  • Social and political needs to achieve rapid economic growth in order to ensure stability

    Therefore, Singapore government, ie the PAP, has always taken economic performance to be above other concerns such as human rights


Pragmatism2

Pragmatism

Pragmatism in education

  • Purpose of education: to equip students with necessary skills to find jobs rather than to develop critical and creative thinking skills

  • overbearing focus on grades and paper qualification

  • Teaching-learning pedagogy


Pragmatism3

Pragmatism

Consequences

  • Credential-oriented system

  • Overly-focused on exam results and grades

    - Ubiquitous TYS and guidebooks

    - Students focus more on the results rather than the learning process


Pragmatism4

Pragmatism

  • The other extreme: many students blindly engage in a plethora of competitions, CIPs and commitments, for the mere sake of boosting their curriculum vitae and portfolios


Pragmatism5

Pragmatism

  • Proliferation of rote memorization

    - affectionately termed as “mugging” or “pure regurgitation”, as a must-do if a student wanted to excel in standardized exams

    - hones exam skills but does not develop creative and critical thinking skills


Bilingualism

Bilingualism

  • A cornerstone of the Singapore education system

  • While English is medium of instruction in schools, most students are required to take a Mother Tongue subject, which could be one of the three official languages: Chinese, Malay or Tamil.


Bilingualism1

Bilingualism

  • Changing objectives:

  • First introduced in 1966 with the primary objective of promoting English as the common language among the diverse ethnic groups in Singapore

  • Nowadays: to educate students with their mother tongues and impart traditional values

Conservative..

Or LIBERAL?


Education

Education


Critical thinking

Critical Thinking

  • Exams nowadays require more thinking skills

    • E.g. AQ question for GP, Planning questions for sciences, and essay questions for humanity subjects

    • Analytical and critical thinking

    • room for self-expression and creativity

    • Practical values of knowledge


Alternative pathways

Alternative Pathways

  • Tendency to be less exam-oriented

    • e.g. Integrated Programme

      • That’s the reason why we are here :)

        • From 2012, seven new schools will offer the Integrated Programme, bringing the total to 18

      • More depth and breath of knowledge

        • E.g. deeper and broader subjects, enrichments, competitions, etc

      • Criticism of IP student disadvantage

        • BUT, for the 1st batch of IP students, similar performance to the previous cohort of non-IP students in the same schools


Alternative pathways1

Alternative Pathways

  • E.g. Direct School Admission (DSA)

    • 91 schools in the 2012 DSA-Sec Exercise

    • 15 government and government-aided JCs: 10%

      four independent institutions: 20%

  • Recognition of a diverse range of achievements

    • Include non-academic areas e.g. music, sports


Arts school

Arts School

  • E.g. School of the Arts (SOTA)

    • Singapore’s first national pre-tertiary specialised arts school

    • AIMS of its education

      • creative thinking

      • expression and communication in the arts

      • being in an arts community


Education liberal

Education (liberal)


Liberal education

Liberal Education

  • E.g. Yale-NUS college (1st! :O)

  • Small size of college classes

    • E.g. around 85% of all classes in Swarthmore College has less than 19 students per class. In addition, only one class has more than 100 students

  • More resources for undergraduates

    • more full time faculty with PhD degrees than a large research university

      Success story of LIBERAL ARTS COLLEGE

      • Liberal arts colleges produce nearly twice as many students who earn a PhD in science as other institutions.

      • a fifth of all US presidents were liberal arts college graduates

      • Pulitzer Prize winners


  • Benefits

    Benefits

    • Liberal Arts education

      • Broad-based education

        Skilled Singapore workforce that possesses intellectual curiosity, confidence, maturity and inclusiveness


    Conclusion

    Conclusion

    • Great emphasis on uniformity and conformity

    • Shifting towards liberal

    • useful to Singapore

      • enhances student learning

      • produces college graduates well-equipped for the economy


    Courting the tourist dollar

    Courtingthe Tourist Dollar

    • Tourism in Singapore:

      • major industry and contributor to economy

      • attracted 13,171,303 tourists in 2011

    • Why?

      • cultural attraction

      • natural and heritage conservation programs

      • Environmentally friendly

      • Low crime rates

      • Convenient transport system

      • Common language: English


    Development of singapore s tourism industry

    Development of Singapore’s tourism industry

    • The Singapore Tourist Promotion Board:

      • first established in 1964

      • promote Singapore as a tourist destination

      • First used the Merlion as its logo

    • Post independence:

      • tourism spurred on by technological improvements in transportation and communications

      • welcomed as a means to create employment and boost the economy


    Development of singapore s tourism industry1

    Development of Singapore’s tourism industry

    • Board actively encouraged investment in infrastructural development

    • such as the building of hotels

    • tourist attractions like the Jurong Bird Park

    • resort island of Sentosa.


    Development of singapore s tourism industry2

    Development of Singapore’s tourism industry

    • 1970s:

      • "garden attractions and modern hotels“

      • “Instant Asia”, or a "melting pot" of Asian cultures


    Uniquely singapore education courting the tourist dollar

    Development of Singapore’s tourism industry

    • Mid-1980s:

      • weakness of infrastructure were identified for falling tourism

    • heralded the implementation of a S$1 billion Tourism Product Development Plan

      • the redevelopment of ethnic “enclaves” such as Chinatown, Little India, Arab Street and Kampong Glam as well as historical sites like the Singapore River


    Chinatown

    Chinatown

    1970s

    Today


    Development of singapore s tourism industry3

    Development of Singapore’s tourism industry

    start of 21st century

    • Uniquely Singapore Brand Campaign rolled out in 2004

    • 11 January 2005

      • Minister for Trade and Industry, Mr Lim Hng Kiang, unveiled the Board's bold targets

      • triple Tourism Receipts to S$30 billion, double visitor arrivals to 17 million, and create an additional 100,000 jobs in the services sector by 2015

      • catalysed by a S$2 billion Tourism Development Fund.


    2015 vision targets and initiatives

    2015 - Vision, Targets and Initiatives

    • Set against the backdrop of growing opportunities

    • ensure that the tourism sector in Singapore remains competitive

    • three key areas of focus:

    • 1. Strengthening Singapore’s position as a Leading Convention & Exhibition City in Asia with a strong and dynamic business environment

    • 2. Developing Singapore as a leading Asian leisure destination by providing an enriching experience that is Uniquely Singapore.

    • 3. Establishing Singapore as the Services Centre of Asia a place where visitors come to enjoy high-end quality services such as healthcare and education services.


    Recent developments

    Recent Developments

    Esplanade – Theatres on the Bay (2002)


    Recent developments1

    Recent Developments

    Singapore Flyer (2008)

    Marina Barrage (2008)


    Recent developments2

    Recent Developments

    F1 Grand Prix (2008-2011)

    Youth Olympic Games 2010


    Recent developments3

    Recent Developments

    Marina Bay Sands Integrated Resorts


    Recent developments4

    Recent Developments

    Resorts World Sentosa


    Recent developments5

    Recent Developments

    Gardens by the Bay (29 June 2012)


    Observations

    Observations

    • Increasingly expanding its target to the global market

    • Begun hosting international events that garner a variety of supporters/tourists (eg. 2009 World Gourmet Summit, 2010 YOG, 20th International Orchid Convention[2011])

    • Increasing focuses on modernity and commercialism


    Uniquely singapore education courting the tourist dollar

    The “all-evil” Casino

    • Marina Bay Sands and Resorts World Casinos

    • Against traditional Asian values

    • Despite an outcry from civic and religious groups opposed to the project

    "A casino glorifies gambling. When you have a casino with the government fully endorsing it, that changes the perception of what gambling is all about," said Joanna Koh-Hoe, vice president of the social group Focus on the Family Singapore.


    Government s countermeasures

    Government’s Countermeasures

    Casino Regulatory Authority of Singapore (2008)

    • responsible for ensuring that the management and operation of the casinos in Singapore remains free from criminal influence or exploitation

      National Council on Problem Gambling

    • set up in Singapore in 2005 to address problem gambling

      Restrictions

    • steep entrance fee of S$100 per entry or S$2,000 per year

    • Exclusion order

    • casinos would not be allowed to extend credit to the local population


    Conservative

    Conservative

    • Despite the ill construction of casinos, the government adopts strict policies to protect locals from suffering its ill effects => “Father knows best”

    • “Integrated Resorts” not “Casino”

      • RW Sentosa: inclusion of USS and other attractions makes it a family destination, not a gathering ground for gamblers

      • Marina Bay Sands: Glamorous Hotels, Gardens by the Bay and other high-end leisure amenities seem to push it a notch up, rather than just a gambling facility


    Liberal

    Liberal

    • developing attractions according to the tastes of the tourists, despite threats to our traditional valuese.g. Merlion & Casino

    • Commercialisation of Singapore's traditional culturee.g. Reconstruction of Chinatown and other historical sites to attract more tourist results in the loss of original character and authentic element of the place.


    Conclusion1

    Conclusion

    • In recent years, Singapore has started building more attractions that are modern and luxurious, and have a smaller emphasis on cultural appeal(eg. USS, MBS). The construction of the 2 casinos was a great turning points as well. In this sense, we may be heading in a more liberal direction.

    • However, the Government still maintains its role as “Guardian”, and enforces certain rules and regulations so that our actions are kept in check.


    Take on tourism

    Take on Tourism

    • What’s YOUR take on tourism?

    • Modern?

    • Traditional?

    • Boring?

    • For us, it’s just a little HIDDEN.


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