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“CO 2 – Course 2 in Gothenburg, 2004” Estonia`s Perspective on CO 2 Capture and Storage overview by Rein Kuusik. CO 2 Emissions Inventory and Diminishing Perspectives. Content. National circumstances Antropogenic GHG emissions inventories Policy and measures Projections and effects

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Co 2 emissions inventory and diminishing perspectives

“CO2 –Course 2 in Gothenburg, 2004”Estonia`s Perspective on CO2 Capture and Storageoverview by Rein Kuusik

CO2Emissions Inventory and Diminishing Perspectives


Content

Content

  • National circumstances

  • Antropogenic GHG emissions inventories

  • Policy and measures

  • Projections and effects

  • Expected impacts

  • Conclusion

  • Links


Map of estonia

Map of Estonia

  • On 2 slides


General

General

  • Independence on 20 August 1991

  • Restructuring from planned to market economy started in the early1990s

  • Population –1,37 million. Diminishing ~0,9% annually

  • Population density -31,8 inhabitants per km2

  • 45 216 km2

  • Flat topography, average elevation 50 m; H.p.- 318 m

  • Meam temp. in July:+16-18oC, in February: -3,5 - 7,5oC

  • Mean annual precipitation range: 550 –700 mm

  • Mean wind speed in coastal zone – 5-7 m/s


Land use

Land use


Distribution of population

Distribution of population


Co 2 emissions inventory and diminishing perspectives

GDP


Gdp by economy sectors

GDP by economy sectors


Contribution of forestry and agriculture

Contribution of forestry and agriculture


Energy and industry profile

Energy and industry profile


Changes in fuel supply

Changes in fuel supply


Co 2 emissions inventory and diminishing perspectives

Oil shaleIn 1999, share in electricity generating 92% As a fuel it is characterized by - a high ash content (45-50%), - moderate moisture(11-13%) and sulphur contents (1.4-1.8%)- a low netcaloric value (8.5-9 MJ). The production of oil shale peaked in 1980 and fell by 8 million tons from1980 to 1990.


Antropogenic ghg emissions inventories

Antropogenic GHG emissions inventories

  • Key gases

    • carbon dioxide(CO2),

    • methane (CH4)

    • Nitrous oxide (N2O)

    • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)

    • Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)

    • Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)


Contribution

Contribution


Co 2 by economy sektors

CO2 by economy sektors


Co 2 emissions combustion

CO2 emissions, combustion


Net co 2 removal

Net CO2 removal


Net co 2 emissions

Net CO2 emissions


Policy

Policy

  • Sustainable Development Act(RT I 1995,31, 384) - sets the most general principles for sustainable development

  • Estonian National Environmental Strategy (RT I1997, 26, 390) - isthe major basic document for the policy-making processin the field of environment

  • the National Environmen­tal Action Plan (NEAP) - defines concrete conceptual, legislation, organisational, educational, training andalso investment measures for reaching the objectives set inthe National Environmental Strategy

  • A number of environmental norms and standards have been worked out and adopted


Co 2 emissions inventory and diminishing perspectives

Strategy 1 – generalIn order to achieve improvements in air quality, it is necessary:- to support development of less polluting types and means oftransport- to ensure the importation of high-quality engine fuel - to stimulate the consumption of cleaner fuels- to impose restrictions established by international conventionson the use of ozone depleting substances and in ordertoachieve- reduction of emissions of VOC and heavy metals- reduction of emission of sulphur and nitrogencompounds-stabilization and reduction of emissions of GHG(CO2, CH4, CxHy).


Strategy 2 energy

  • In order to promote energy conservation, it is necessary:

    • to stimulate the use of less polluting fuels;

    • to encourage energy saving at transport from the producer to the consumer;

    • to support the use of renewable fuels and energy sources;

    • to reduce the negative impact of the oil-shale energy complex on the environment;

    • to introduce new technologies to raise the efficiency of the energy sector starting from fuel supply through power generation and transmission to energy consumption;

Strategy 2 - energy


Projections 1

Projections 1

The projections of the GHG emissions were calculated on the basis of general trendsof the development of national economy, energy demandand supply in Estonia.

The results of the inventory of GHGshow that an approximate total of 76% of all GHG emissions consist of CO2, with combustion processes being thelargest source (approx. 98% of all CO2 emissions).

For this reason, the main attention was directed to the projection for CO2 emissions from combustion processes.

Theremaining 24% of all GHG emissions consist of methane(21%) and nitrous oxide (3%). Here the uncertainties aregreater.

Complicated task is to compile scenarios for the GHG sink, the more so as we have not scientifically supported calculations for biogeochemical cycles ofCO2 in terrestrial ecosystems for Estonia.


Projections 2

Projections 2

  • General background for making projections

  • PopulationGross Domestic Product

  • Energy price Energy taxation

  • Energy policy and institutional issues

  • The numberof quantitative indicators for the energysector and national economy were taken into account when draftingGHG emission scenarios for Estonia.

  • The two projections elaborated were:

  • • WM-projection (“with measures” projection), whichreflects the impact of planned measures and the policies and measures implemented in period 1995-2000;

  • .• WAM-projection (“with additional measures” projection), which encompasses additional policies andmeasures, that may be taken in future.


Results energy sector have a look on the overhead slide with table 4 2 1 and slide 18

Results, energy sectorhave a look on the overhead slide with table 4.2.1 and slide 18


Projections 3

Projections 3


Climate scenarios

Climate Scenarios


Co 2 emissions inventory and diminishing perspectives

ConclusionsIn the Republic of Estonia the legislation, policy and measures for mitigation of the atmospheric emissions of GHG-s including CO2 have been elaborated and enforcedNo measures focused on the capture and storage of CO2 have not been foreseen in the state-level plansThe basic and applied research for CO2 mineralisation in the energy sector have been initiated by TTU under support of ESF and SC Narva Elektrijaamad


Co 2 emissions inventory and diminishing perspectives

Linkshttp://www.envir.ee/eng/strategy.htmlhttp://www.envir.ee/eng/neap.htmlhttp://www.mkm.ee/failid/Estonian Energy2002http://www.seit.ee/allalaaditavad materjalid- Possible Energy Sector Trends in Estonia. Context of Climate Change- Country Case Study on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Assessment in the Republic of Estonia


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