2008/2009 Forest Watch
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2008/2009 Forest Watch Data Book Review & Discussion: Ozone summary for 2008, Spectral & Biometric Data Analysis. Students & Scientists Working Together Determining the Health of New England Forests.

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Students & Scientists Working Together Determining the Health of New England Forests

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Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

2008/2009 Forest Watch

Data Book Review & Discussion:

Ozone summary for 2008,

Spectral & Biometric Data Analysis

Students & Scientists Working Together

Determining the Health of New England Forests


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

Forest Watch offers students and teachers authentic opportunities in science by participating in on-going research to assess the health of forests in New England.

several ecological and biophysical measurements in white pine stands, looking for signs of ground-level ozone damage and other forest health concerns.


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

Eastern White Pine

Pinus strobus

  • Selected Because:

  • It is a Bioindicator of Groundlevel

  • Ozone (SMOG) Exposure

  • Common in New England

  • Retains foliage year-round, can be studied throughout the school year

  • Often occurs outside the classroom

  • (a local fieldtrip)


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

From The Macroscope to the Microscope

Magnification

Tree

Branch

Needle

Needle Cross Section

4 m

25 mm

1.5 mm

0.5 mm


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

  • Landsat ETM Image

  • false color composite

  • bands 4/3/2

  • Infared Mimic

  • 10-11-99

Durham NH

Each Pixel or PSSP

= 30meters X 30 meters

College Woods


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

2008 Ozone Summary


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

Figure 6: Number of 8-hr exceedances, compared to the number of days with temperatures greater than 90ºF, as measured at Bradley Airport outside Hartford, CT. 1983-2009. Source: http://www.epa.gov/region01/airquality/graph.html


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

NAAQS

NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

1-hour 120ppb (parts per billion): the average of the 4 highest values must be

< 120ppb over any 1 hour period each day.

8-Hour (1997) 80ppb (parts per billion): the average of the 4 highest values must be

 80 ppb over any 8 hour period each day.

8-Hour (2008) 75ppb (parts per billion): the average of the 4 highest values must be

< 75 ppb over any 8 hour period each day.


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

OZONE POLICY IN TRANSITION:

1971:  EPA established a 1-hour ozone standard of 80 ppb.1979: EPA revised the 1-hour standard to 120 ppb.

1997: 1-hr 120ppb revised to 8-hr 80ppb

2003: States and Tribes Submitted to the EPA their designations for non-attainment.

2004: Official non-attainment designations based on data from 2000-2002.

(avg. annual 4th highest max daily 8-hr values from 55+ stations)

2005: 8-hr 80ppb NAAQS made official.

2007:State Tribal and Local Governments submit State Implementation Plans (SIP’s).

detailing how they will meet attainment by deadlines determined by their non-attainment status. 89 of 126 areas nationally listed in non-attainment met standard between 2004 and 2006 (13% ozone decline 02-06!)

2008: March 12th 2008 , new 8-hr 75ppb NAAQS made official

2009: States and Tribes Submitted to the EPA their designations for non-attainment.

2010: March, official designations based on 2007-2009 monitor data, followed by revised SIP’s

2013-30: Attainment dates depending on severity of problem


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

US Counties currently in non-attainment to the 75ppb NAAQS, established on March 12, 2008. Source: http://www.epa.gov/air/ozonepollution/actions.html#mar07


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

Figure 5: US Counties that would be in violation to the 60-70ppb NAAQS, proposed by the EPA on January19, 2010. Source:(http://www.epa.gov/groundlevelozone/fr/20100119.pdf)


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

  • Figure 7: Graph of the Number of Exceedance Days by State in Region 1:

  • New England based on the 1997 8-hour (80ppb) NAAQS, 1983-2009.

  • Source :http://www.epa.gov/region1/airquality/standard.html


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

  • Figure 8: June-August, ranked precipitation and temperature from 1991-2008 for New England

  • plotted against 8-hr ozone exceedance events for Region 1.

  • Climate Data: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/research/cag3/nt.html

  • Ozone Data: http://www.epa.gov/region1/airquality/standard.html


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

Source: http://www.epa.gov/NE/airquality/omssites.html


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

Long Term Spectral & Biometric Analysis of Forest Watch Data

VIRIS

Visible/InfraredIntelligent Spectrometer

UNH Spectral Data Student Biometric Data

Monitoring the Photosynthetic Capacity of our Forests


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

5

7

4

1

2

3


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

Red Edge Inflection Point (REIP)


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

Relationship Between Chlorophyll and Spectral Index (REIP)


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

2008 White Pine REIP Distribution


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

In 2008, high REIP values corresponded to low ozone values as they have in most years

since Forest Watch began.

2004 through 2007 are our highest REIP values.

REIP is rising over time, Our white pines are getting healthier!


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

Figure 25: Spring precipitation trends 1990-2008

Source: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/research/cag3/nh.html


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

  • Figure 8: June-August, ranked precipitation and temperature from 1991-2008 for New England plotted against 8-hr ozone exceedance events for Region 1.


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

Figure 15: Average Red Edge Inflection Point (REIP) values for all New Hampshire schools compared to the number of 8-hour (80ppb) ground-level ozone exceedance events each year from 1991-2008.


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

Figure 18: Red Edge Inflection Point (REIP) values for New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine, Connecticut and Vermont 1991-2007.


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

% WATER CONTENT

TM5/TM4

P = <0.0001

P = 0.0431

Figure 23B: Percent Water Content vs. Needle Age Class

Figure 23A: TM54 vs. Needle Age Class


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

NIR3/NIR1

1

3

Figure 21: NIR 3/1 foliar development index for New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine, Connecticut and Vermont 1993-2007.

P = <0.0001

Figure 24: NIR 3/1 vs. Needle Age Class


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

Figure 26: Average Yearly Needle Retention 1992-2008.


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

Figure 25: Spring precipitation trends 1990-2008

Source: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/research/cag3/nh.html


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

WATER CONTENT

Figure 29: Percent needle water content 1992-2007.

Figure 30: Percent water content: UNH Lab vs. Students Measurements

Figure 31: Percent water content vs. Needle Age Class


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

Figure 24: Average white pine needle length 1992-2008.


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

Figure 25: Spring precipitation trends 1990-2008

Source: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/research/cag3/nh.html


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

Figure 29: Percent of white pine needles with presence of both symptoms,

(chlorotic mottle & tip necrosis) 1996-2008.


Students scientists working together determining the health of new england forests

Students & Scientists Working Together

Determining the Health of New England Forests

  • Dr. Barrett Rock, & Michael Gagnon

  • Complex Systems Research Center

  • University of New Hampshire

  • Durham, NH 03824

  • Phone: 603-862- 4113

  • Fax: 603-862-0188

  • [email protected]

  • [email protected]


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