2008/2009 Forest Watch Data Book Review & Discussion: Ozone summary for 2008, Spectral & Biometric Data Analysis. Students & Scientists Working Together Determining the Health of New England Forests.
Data Book Review & Discussion:
Ozone summary for 2008,
Spectral & Biometric Data Analysis
Students & Scientists Working Together
Determining the Health of New England Forests
Forest Watch offers students and teachers authentic opportunities in science by participating in on-going research to assess the health of forests in New England.
several ecological and biophysical measurements in white pine stands, looking for signs of ground-level ozone damage and other forest health concerns.
Needle Cross Section
Each Pixel or PSSP
= 30meters X 30 meters
Figure 6: Number of 8-hr exceedances, compared to the number of days with temperatures greater than 90ºF, as measured at Bradley Airport outside Hartford, CT. 1983-2009. Source: http://www.epa.gov/region01/airquality/graph.html
NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
1-hour 120ppb (parts per billion): the average of the 4 highest values must be
< 120ppb over any 1 hour period each day.
8-Hour (1997) 80ppb (parts per billion): the average of the 4 highest values must be
80 ppb over any 8 hour period each day.
8-Hour (2008) 75ppb (parts per billion): the average of the 4 highest values must be
< 75 ppb over any 8 hour period each day.
1971: EPA established a 1-hour ozone standard of 80 ppb.1979: EPA revised the 1-hour standard to 120 ppb.
1997: 1-hr 120ppb revised to 8-hr 80ppb
2003: States and Tribes Submitted to the EPA their designations for non-attainment.
2004: Official non-attainment designations based on data from 2000-2002.
(avg. annual 4th highest max daily 8-hr values from 55+ stations)
2005: 8-hr 80ppb NAAQS made official.
2007: State Tribal and Local Governments submit State Implementation Plans (SIP’s).
detailing how they will meet attainment by deadlines determined by their non-attainment status. 89 of 126 areas nationally listed in non-attainment met standard between 2004 and 2006 (13% ozone decline 02-06!)
2008: March 12th 2008 , new 8-hr 75ppb NAAQS made official
2009: States and Tribes Submitted to the EPA their designations for non-attainment.
2010: March, official designations based on 2007-2009 monitor data, followed by revised SIP’s
2013-30: Attainment dates depending on severity of problem
US Counties currently in non-attainment to the 75ppb NAAQS, established on March 12, 2008. Source: http://www.epa.gov/air/ozonepollution/actions.html#mar07
Figure 5: established on March 12, 2008. Source: US Counties that would be in violation to the 60-70ppb NAAQS, proposed by the EPA on January19, 2010. Source:(http://www.epa.gov/groundlevelozone/fr/20100119.pdf)
Source: established on March 12, 2008. Source: http://www.epa.gov/NE/airquality/omssites.html
UNH Spectral Data Student Biometric Data
Monitoring the Photosynthetic Capacity of our Forests
In 2008, high REIP values corresponded to low ozone values as they have in most years
since Forest Watch began.
2004 through 2007 are our highest REIP values.
REIP is rising over time, Our white pines are getting healthier!
Figure 15: as they have in most years Average Red Edge Inflection Point (REIP) values for all New Hampshire schools compared to the number of 8-hour (80ppb) ground-level ozone exceedance events each year from 1991-2008.
Figure 18: as they have in most years Red Edge Inflection Point (REIP) values for New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine, Connecticut and Vermont 1991-2007.
% WATER CONTENT as they have in most years
P = <0.0001
P = 0.0431
Figure 23B: Percent Water Content vs. Needle Age Class
Figure 23A: TM54 vs. Needle Age Class
NIR3/NIR1 as they have in most years
Figure 21: NIR 3/1 foliar development index for New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine, Connecticut and Vermont 1993-2007.
P = <0.0001
Figure 24: NIR 3/1 vs. Needle Age Class
Figure 26: as they have in most years Average Yearly Needle Retention 1992-2008.
WATER CONTENT as they have in most years
Figure 29: Percent needle water content 1992-2007.
Figure 30: Percent water content: UNH Lab vs. Students Measurements
Figure 31: Percent water content vs. Needle Age Class
Figure 24 as they have in most years: Average white pine needle length 1992-2008.
Figure 29 as they have in most years: Percent of white pine needles with presence of both symptoms,
(chlorotic mottle & tip necrosis) 1996-2008.