Whole Body Terms
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Whole Body Terms Dr. Michael P. Gillespie. Chapter Goals. Define terms that apply to the structural organization of the body. Identify the body cavities and recognize the organs contained within those cavities. Locate and identify the anatomical and clinical divisions of the abdomen.

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Whole Body Terms

Dr. Michael P. Gillespie


Chapter goals
Chapter Goals

  • Define terms that apply to the structural organization of the body.

  • Identify the body cavities and recognize the organs contained within those cavities.

  • Locate and identify the anatomical and clinical divisions of the abdomen.

  • Locate and name the anatomical divisions of the back.


Chapter goals1
Chapter Goals

  • Become acquainted with terms that describe positions, directions, and planes of the body.

  • Identify the meanings for new word elements and use them to understand medical terms.


Structural organization of the body
Structural Organization of the Body

  • CELLS

  • TISSUES

  • ORGANS

  • SYSTEMS


Structural organization of the body1
Structural Organization of the Body

Cells—Fundamental units of all living things

  • Major parts of a cell include:

    • chromosomes

    • nucleus

    • cell membrane

    • cytoplasm


Structural organization of the body2
Structural Organization of the Body

  • CELL—the fundamental unit of all living things


Study section 1
Study Section 1

  • metabolism

  • anabolism

  • catabolism

  • cell membrane

  • chromosomes

  • cytoplasm

  • DNA

  • endoplasmic reticulum

  • genes

  • karyotype

  • metabolism

  • mitochondria

  • nucleus


Structural organization of the body3
Structural Organization of the Body

  • Cells are specialized to carry out individual functions.

  • Some cell types

    • Epithelial cell

    • Fat cell

    • Nerve cell

    • Muscle cell



Structural organization of the body5
Structural Organization of the Body

Tissues

  • Different tissue types include:

    • Epithelial Tissue

    • Muscle Tissue

    • Connective Tissue

    • Nerve Tissue


Structural organization of the body6
Structural Organization of the Body

  • Organs: Different types of tissue combine to form an organ

  • Systems: Groups of organs working together to perform complex functions


Study section 2
Study Section 2

  • adipose tissue

  • cartilage

  • epithelial cells

  • histologist

  • larynx

  • pharynx

  • pituitary gland

  • thyroid gland

  • trachea

  • ureter

  • urethra

  • uterus

  • viscera


Body cavities and organs
Body Cavities and Organs

Cavity Organ(s)

Cranial

Thoracic

Abdominal

Pelvic

Spinal

Brain

Lungs and heart

Stomach, small and large intestines, spleen, pancreas

Portions of the small and large intestines, bladder, rectum

Nerves of the spinal cord


Body cavities
Body Cavities

  • Identify the body cavities in the figure


Body cavities1
Body Cavities

  • Body cavities are the spaces within the body that contain internal organs (viscera).


Quick quiz
QUICK QUIZ:

  • Which body cavity contains the pleural cavity and the mediastinum?

    • cranial

    • pelvic

    • spinal

    • thoracic


Quick quiz1
QUICK QUIZ:

  • Which body cavity contains the peritoneum?

    • abdominal

    • pelvic

    • spinal

    • thoracic


Organs of the abdominopelvic and thoracic cavities
Organs of theAbdominopelvic and Thoracic Cavities


Organs of the abdominopelvic and thoracic cavities1
Organs of the Abdominopelvicand Thoracic Cavities


Study section 3
Study Section 3

  • abdominal cavity

  • cranial cavity

  • diaphragm

  • dorsal (posterior)

  • mediastinum

  • pleura

  • pleural cavity

  • spinal cavity

  • thoracic cavity

  • ventral (anterior)


Abdominopelvic regions
AbdominopelvicRegions

Regions

  • Right Hypochondriac region

  • Left Hypochondriac region

  • Epigastric region

  • Right Lumbar region

  • Left Lumbar region

  • Umbilical region

  • Right Inguinal region

  • Left Inguinal region

  • Hypogastric region




Abdominopelvic quadrants
AbdominopelvicQuadrants

  • Quadrants

    • Right upper quadrant (RUQ)

    • Left upper quadrant (LUQ)

    • Right lower quadrant (RLQ)

    • Left lower quadrant (LLQ)


Abdominopelvic quadrants1
Abdominopelvic Quadrants


Abdominopelvic quadrants2
AbdominopelvicQuadrants


Anatomical divisions of the back
Anatomical Divisions of the Back

  • Cervical

  • Thoracic

  • Lumbar

  • Sacral

  • Coccygeal




Quick quiz2
QUICK QUIZ:

  • Name the abdominopelvic region that is located in the central region near the navel.

    • inguinal

    • umbilical

    • lumbar

    • hypochondriac


Quick quiz3
QUICK QUIZ:

  • Name the abdominopelvic region that is located in the lower middle below the umbilical region.

    • inguinal

    • epigastric

    • lumbar

    • hypogastric


Positions directions and planes of the body
Positions, Directions, and Planes of the Body

Positional and Directional Terms

  • Anterior (ventral)

  • Posterior (dorsal)

  • Deep

  • Superficial

  • Proximal

  • Distal

  • Inferior

  • Superior




Positions directions and planes of the body1
Positions, Directions, and Planes of the Body

  • Positional and Directional Terms (cont’d)

    • Medial

    • Lateral

    • Supine

    • Prone


Positions directions and planes of the body2
Positions, Directions, and Planes of the Body

  • Planes of the Body

    • Frontal (coronal)

    • Sagittal (lateral)

    • Transverse (cross-sectional or axial)




Combining forms suffixes and prefixes
Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes

Combining Form Meaning

abdomin/o abdomen

adip/o fat

anter/o front

bol/o to cast (throw)


Combining forms suffixes and prefixes1
Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes

Combining Form Meaning

cervic/o neck (of the body or uterus)

chondr/o cartilage

chrom/o color

coccyg/o coccyx (tailbone)


Combining forms suffixes and prefixes2
Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes

Combining Form Meaning

crani/o skull

cyt/o cell

dist/o far, distant

dors/o back portion of the body


Combining forms suffixes and prefixes3
Combining Forms, Suffixes and Prefixes

Combining Form Meaning

hist/o tissue

ili/o ilium (of the pelvic bone)

inguin/o groin

kary/o nucleus


Combining forms suffixes and prefixes4
Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes

Combining Form Meaning

later/o side

lumb/o lower back

medi/o middle

nucle/o nucleus


Combining forms suffixes and prefixes5
Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes

Combining Form Meaning

pelv/i pelvis

poster/o back, behind

proxim/o nearest

sacr/o sacrum


Combining forms suffixes and prefixes6
Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes

Combining Form Meaning

sarc/o flesh

spin/o spine, backbone

thel/o nipple

thorac/o chest

trache/o trachea, windpipe


Combining forms suffixes and prefixes7
Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes

Combining Form Meaning

umbilic/o navel, umbilicus

ventr/o belly side of the body

vertebro vertebra(e), backbone(s)

viscer/o internal organs


Combining forms suffixes and prefixes8
Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes

Combining Form Meaning

ana- up

cata- down

epi- above

hypo- below

inter- between

meta- change


Combining forms suffixes and prefixes9
Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes

Suffix Meaning

-ealpertaining to

-iacpertaining to

-iorpertaining to

-ism process, condition

-osepertaining to, full of

-plasmformation

-somesbodies

-type picture, classification


Quick quiz4
QUICK QUIZ:

  • Which term means process of cutting the skull?

    • thoracotomy

    • craniotomy

    • diskectomy

    • arthroscopy


Pronunciation guide review
Pronunciation Guide Review

  • ā as in āpe

  • ē as in ēven

  • ī as in īce

  • ō as in ōpen

  • ū as in ūnit

  • ă as in ăpple

  • ĕ as in ĕvery

  • ĭ as in ĭnterest

  • ŏ as in pŏt

  • ŭ as in ŭnder


Pronunciation
Pronunciation

Examples:

adipose ĂD-ĭ-pōs

caudal KAWD- ăl

distal DĬS-tăl

trachea TRĀ-kē-ă


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