Whole Body Terms
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Whole Body Terms Dr. Michael P. Gillespie PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Whole Body Terms Dr. Michael P. Gillespie. Chapter Goals. Define terms that apply to the structural organization of the body. Identify the body cavities and recognize the organs contained within those cavities. Locate and identify the anatomical and clinical divisions of the abdomen.

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Whole Body Terms Dr. Michael P. Gillespie

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Whole Body Terms

Dr. Michael P. Gillespie


Chapter Goals

  • Define terms that apply to the structural organization of the body.

  • Identify the body cavities and recognize the organs contained within those cavities.

  • Locate and identify the anatomical and clinical divisions of the abdomen.

  • Locate and name the anatomical divisions of the back.


Chapter Goals

  • Become acquainted with terms that describe positions, directions, and planes of the body.

  • Identify the meanings for new word elements and use them to understand medical terms.


Structural Organization of the Body

  • CELLS

  • TISSUES

  • ORGANS

  • SYSTEMS


Structural Organization of the Body

Cells—Fundamental units of all living things

  • Major parts of a cell include:

    • chromosomes

    • nucleus

    • cell membrane

    • cytoplasm


Structural Organization of the Body

  • CELL—the fundamental unit of all living things


Study Section 1

  • metabolism

  • anabolism

  • catabolism

  • cell membrane

  • chromosomes

  • cytoplasm

  • DNA

  • endoplasmic reticulum

  • genes

  • karyotype

  • metabolism

  • mitochondria

  • nucleus


Structural Organization of the Body

  • Cells are specialized to carry out individual functions.

  • Some cell types

    • Epithelial cell

    • Fat cell

    • Nerve cell

    • Muscle cell


Structural Organization of the Body


Structural Organization of the Body

Tissues

  • Different tissue types include:

    • Epithelial Tissue

    • Muscle Tissue

    • Connective Tissue

    • Nerve Tissue


Structural Organization of the Body

  • Organs: Different types of tissue combine to form an organ

  • Systems: Groups of organs working together to perform complex functions


Study Section 2

  • adipose tissue

  • cartilage

  • epithelial cells

  • histologist

  • larynx

  • pharynx

  • pituitary gland

  • thyroid gland

  • trachea

  • ureter

  • urethra

  • uterus

  • viscera


Body Cavities and Organs

Cavity Organ(s)

Cranial

Thoracic

Abdominal

Pelvic

Spinal

Brain

Lungs and heart

Stomach, small and large intestines, spleen, pancreas

Portions of the small and large intestines, bladder, rectum

Nerves of the spinal cord


Body Cavities

  • Identify the body cavities in the figure


Body Cavities

  • Body cavities are the spaces within the body that contain internal organs (viscera).


QUICK QUIZ:

  • Which body cavity contains the pleural cavity and the mediastinum?

    • cranial

    • pelvic

    • spinal

    • thoracic


QUICK QUIZ:

  • Which body cavity contains the peritoneum?

    • abdominal

    • pelvic

    • spinal

    • thoracic


Organs of theAbdominopelvic and Thoracic Cavities


Organs of the Abdominopelvicand Thoracic Cavities


Study Section 3

  • abdominal cavity

  • cranial cavity

  • diaphragm

  • dorsal (posterior)

  • mediastinum

  • pleura

  • pleural cavity

  • spinal cavity

  • thoracic cavity

  • ventral (anterior)


AbdominopelvicRegions

Regions

  • Right Hypochondriac region

  • Left Hypochondriac region

  • Epigastric region

  • Right Lumbar region

  • Left Lumbar region

  • Umbilical region

  • Right Inguinal region

  • Left Inguinal region

  • Hypogastric region


AbdominopelvicRegions


AbdominopelvicRegions


AbdominopelvicQuadrants

  • Quadrants

    • Right upper quadrant (RUQ)

    • Left upper quadrant (LUQ)

    • Right lower quadrant (RLQ)

    • Left lower quadrant (LLQ)


Abdominopelvic Quadrants


AbdominopelvicQuadrants


Anatomical Divisions of the Back

  • Cervical

  • Thoracic

  • Lumbar

  • Sacral

  • Coccygeal


Anatomical Divisions of the Back


Anatomical Divisions of the Back


QUICK QUIZ:

  • Name the abdominopelvic region that is located in the central region near the navel.

    • inguinal

    • umbilical

    • lumbar

    • hypochondriac


QUICK QUIZ:

  • Name the abdominopelvic region that is located in the lower middle below the umbilical region.

    • inguinal

    • epigastric

    • lumbar

    • hypogastric


Positions, Directions, and Planes of the Body

Positional and Directional Terms

  • Anterior (ventral)

  • Posterior (dorsal)

  • Deep

  • Superficial

  • Proximal

  • Distal

  • Inferior

  • Superior


Positional and Directional Terms


Positional and Directional Terms


Positions, Directions, and Planes of the Body

  • Positional and Directional Terms (cont’d)

    • Medial

    • Lateral

    • Supine

    • Prone


Positions, Directions, and Planes of the Body

  • Planes of the Body

    • Frontal (coronal)

    • Sagittal (lateral)

    • Transverse (cross-sectional or axial)


Positional and Directional Terms


Positional and Directional Terms


Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes

Combining FormMeaning

abdomin/oabdomen

adip/ofat

anter/ofront

bol/oto cast (throw)


Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes

Combining FormMeaning

cervic/oneck (of the body or uterus)

chondr/ocartilage

chrom/ocolor

coccyg/ococcyx (tailbone)


Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes

Combining FormMeaning

crani/oskull

cyt/ocell

dist/ofar, distant

dors/oback portion of the body


Combining Forms, Suffixes and Prefixes

Combining FormMeaning

hist/otissue

ili/oilium (of the pelvic bone)

inguin/ogroin

kary/onucleus


Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes

Combining FormMeaning

later/oside

lumb/olower back

medi/omiddle

nucle/onucleus


Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes

Combining FormMeaning

pelv/ipelvis

poster/oback, behind

proxim/onearest

sacr/osacrum


Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes

Combining FormMeaning

sarc/oflesh

spin/ospine, backbone

thel/onipple

thorac/ochest

trache/otrachea, windpipe


Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes

Combining Form Meaning

umbilic/onavel, umbilicus

ventr/obelly side of the body

vertebrovertebra(e), backbone(s)

viscer/ointernal organs


Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes

Combining FormMeaning

ana-up

cata-down

epi-above

hypo-below

inter-between

meta-change


Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes

Suffix Meaning

-ealpertaining to

-iacpertaining to

-iorpertaining to

-ism process, condition

-osepertaining to, full of

-plasmformation

-somesbodies

-type picture, classification


QUICK QUIZ:

  • Which term means process of cutting the skull?

    • thoracotomy

    • craniotomy

    • diskectomy

    • arthroscopy


Pronunciation Guide Review

  • ā as in āpe

  • ē as in ēven

  • ī as in īce

  • ō as in ōpen

  • ū as in ūnit

  • ă as in ăpple

  • ĕ as in ĕvery

  • ĭ as in ĭnterest

  • ŏ as in pŏt

  • ŭ as in ŭnder


Pronunciation

Examples:

adiposeĂD-ĭ-pōs

caudalKAWD- ăl

distalDĬS-tăl

tracheaTRĀ-kē-ă


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