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APUSH Chapter 9 Topic 5: The Early Republic 1789-1815. The Confederation & the Constitution , 1781-1790. FRQ #3. Discuss the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. Include evidence & reasons why the Articles of Confederation were destined to fail. .

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Apush chapter 9 topic 5 the early republic 1789 1815

APUSH Chapter 9

Topic 5: The Early Republic 1789-1815

The Confederation & the Constitution , 1781-1790


Frq 3
FRQ #3

  • Discuss the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. Include evidence & reasons why the Articles of Confederation were destined to fail.


Constitutional convention the real revolution
Constitutional Convention& The “ Real Revolution”

  • The war is over… now what?

  • Early Republican Period 1789-1812


The real revolution
“The Real Revolution…”

…was the radical change in the principles , opinions, sentiments, and affections of the people.”

– John Adams


Defining democracy
Defining “Democracy”

  • Greek word meaning:

  • “demos” = people

  • “kratos” = power

  • The rule/power of the people


Direct democracy
“Direct Democracy”

  • A form of democracy in which citizens rule and make laws directly, rather than through representatives.


Representative democracy
“Representative Democracy”

  • A government in which leaders make decisions by winning a competitive struggle for the popular vote


What is a republic
What is a “Republic”??

  • A government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to elect the leaders who make governmental decisions


Republicanism civic duty
Republicanism & Civic Duty

  • 1. “civic virtue” – democracy depends on the unselfish commitment of each citizen to public good

  • 2. “Republican Motherhood” – women’s responsibility to rear socially responsible citizens


Articles of confederation 1781
Articles of Confederation (1781)

  • 1st attempt at constitution

  • Created a “league of friendship” rather than a strong “nation”


The articles of confederation
The Articles of Confederation…

  • Reserved the right of each STATE (not National Government)

  • To pursue “sovereignty, freedom, and independence”


Weaknesses of the articles of confederation
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation

  • 1. Congress could not regulate commerce

  • 2. Congress could not tax

  • 3. Each state retained sovereignty & independence

  • 4. Federal Government could not exercise authority directly over states.

  • 5. Lack of a national judiciary system

  • 6. all 13 colonies had to agree when voting

  • 7. Lack of a national military


Congress could only
Congress could ONLY…

  • 1. raise armies

  • 2. declare war

  • 3. sign treaties


Shay s rebellion january 1787
Shay’s Rebellion, January 1787

  • Led by: Daniel Shays

  • Cause: Massachusetts farmers (ex-revolutionary soldiers!)

  • protested debt, high taxes

  • Feared losing properties to tax collectors


The leaders of shay s rebellion 1787 sought
The Leaders of Shay’s Rebellion (1787) Sought:

  • 1. an end to farm foreclosures

  • 2. an end to imprisonment for debt

  • 3. relief from high taxation

  • 4. increased circulation of paper money (hard currency)


Daniel shays led
Daniel Shays led…

  • 1,000 farmers and working class men

  • In a March Towards Boston

  • Governor of Massachusetts asked continental ( national) congress to send troops


Response of continental congress
Response of Continental Congress:

  • Troops???What troops???

  • No national army!!!


Shay s troops eventually
Shay’s Troops eventually …

  • Disintegrated

  • Some were captured & punished

  • Shays was eventually pardoned

  • died in poverty 1788


Shay s rebellion 1787
Shay’s Rebellion, 1787…

  • Highlighted the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation

  • The new United States of America needed a STRONGER Central Government…



1 land ordinance 1785
, 1. Land Ordinance 1785 Confederation?

  • Meant to establish “townships” - a form of Land division

  • six miles square as basic unit of settlement.


2 northwest ordinance 1787
2. Northwest Ordinance, 1787 Confederation?

  • Steps for Statehood:

  • 1. Congress appointed territorial Governor

  • 2. 5,000 males needed to approve temporary state constitution

  • 3. Total Population of 60,000could apply for statehood


Chap 9

Chap 9 Confederation?

The Creation of the U.S. Constitution


Constitutional convention
Constitutional Convention Confederation?

  • Convened May, 1787

  • Every state except Rhode Island sent delegates

  • Place: Independence Hall in Philadelphia


Who are the framers
Who are the Confederation?“Framers”?

  • The Framers of the constitution are the delegates who wrote it.


Meet the delegates
Meet the Delegates… Confederation?

  • 55 delegatesin all

  • Average age: 42

  • Oldest : Benjamin Franklin , 81

  • Youngest : Jonathan Dayton, 27

  • Favored A “representative democracy”


Meet the delegates1
Meet the Delegates… Confederation?

  • 31 / 55 college educated

  • 19 / 55 slave owners

  • 31 / 55 Lawyers

  • Only 30 out 55 participate regularly

  • None represented the poor


Debatable issues
Debatable ISSUES… Confederation?

  • 1. Representation in Congress

  • 2. Slavery

  • 3. Who can vote?

  • 4. Economic Interests

  • 5. Individual Rights


Proposal 1 the virginia plan
Proposal #1 - Confederation? The Virginia Plan :

  • Strong national government divided into: legislative, executive, judicial branches

  • 1. national legislature has supreme powers

  • 2. 1 house of legislature elected by people.

  • 3. bicameral legislature

  • Proposed by: James Madison


Proposal 2 the new jersey plan
Proposal #2: Confederation? The New Jersey Plan:

  • Favored a Weak national government

  • 1. Single chamber congress

  • 2. Each state has an equal vote

  • Proposed by: William Paterson


Compromises 1787
Compromises- 1787 Confederation?

  • 1. The Great Compromise:

  • Equal representation in the Senate (2)

  • Representation based on Population in

    House of Representatives


Compromises 17871
Compromises 1787 Confederation?

  • 2. 3/5’sCompromise:

  • Free states vs. slave states

  • Counts 5 slaves as 3 people

  • When determining each state’s representation in House of Reps


The executive office
The Executive Office Confederation?

  • Should the President…

  • 1. be elected by congress ?

  • 2.be elected by state governors ?

  • 3. be paid $100,000 ?

  • 4. be elected by the people ?


Resolution
Resolution Confederation?

  • Indirect Vote for President:

  • State electors (electoral college)


Final draft of constitution
Final Draft Of Constitution Confederation?

  • Presented Sept. 17, 1787


Separation of powers
Separation of Powers Confederation?

  • National Government:

  • 1. Executive Branch (President)

  • 2. Legislative Branch (Congress)

  • 3. Judicial Branch (Supreme Court)


Branches of government
Branches of Government Confederation?

  • 1. Legislative: House of Reps + Senate (Congress)

  • make laws

  • may override Presidential Veto

  • confirms Presidential appointments and treaties


Branches of government1
Branches of Government Confederation?

  • 2. Executive: President …

  • enforces laws

  • conducts foreign policy,

  • negotiates treaties

  • Commander in Chief of army

  • Appoints judges, and members of executive branch


Branches of government2
Branches of Government Confederation?

  • 3. Judicial: Supreme Court interprets constitution, & the constitutionality of laws

  • “supremacy clause” – article 6 of the constitution the constitution is the supreme law of the land


Checks and balances
Checks and Balances Confederation?

  • Prevents any one branch from dominating the other


The constitution in parts
The Constitution in Parts: Confederation?

  • As ratified 1788:

  • 1.Preamble - Introduction

  • 2. Articles – 7 sections

  • AFTER 1788:

  • 3. Amendments - additions to the original document

  • “The first 10 Amendments are the Bill of Rights”.


Preamble constitution
Preamble- Constitution Confederation?

  • We the people of the United States, In order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.


Preamble sing a long
Preamble Sing-a-long Confederation?

  • Karaoke Constitution!

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9vDk47qLbXs


Ratification approval 1787 1788
Ratification (approval) 1787-1788 Confederation?

  • Constitution needed approval of 9/13 colonies


Arguments for and against
Arguments “for”, and “against” Confederation?

  • Federalists

  • Favored Constitution

  • Strong national government

  • Anti-federalists

  • Against Constitution

  • Favored Strong States rights


The federalist papers 1787
The Federalist Papers Confederation? -1787

  • 85 Essays arguing for the Constitution

  • By: Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison (A. JAY JAM!)


Federal constitution ratified june 21 st 1788
Federal Constitution Ratified June 21 Confederation?st, 1788

  • 9th state (New Hampshire) approved

  • The Presidency: Each state chose electors

  • Electors voted for 2 men (Feb. 1789)

  • Majority votes won



Finally a president
Finally, A President! Confederation?

  • George Washington declared Winner -April, 1789

  • John Adams (runner up) declared Vice- President


Bill of rights 1791
Bill of Rights, 1791 Confederation?

  • 1st10 amendments to constitution

  • Guarantee of people’s liberties

  • Was not added until 1791 – not a part of the Constitution as ratified in 1788”.


The bill of rights first amendments
The Bill of Rights- First Amendments Confederation?

  • 1st of religion, speech, press, assembly, & petition

  • 2nd - right to keep & bear arms

  • 3rd – lodging troops in private homes

  • 4th – search, seizures, property warrants

  • 5th- criminal proceedings, due process, eminent domain


The bill of rights first amendments1
The Bill of Rights- First Amendments Confederation?

  • 6th –criminal proceedings

  • 7th –jury trials in civil cases

  • 8th – bail, cruel & unusual punishment

  • 9th –unenumerated rights

  • 10th –powers reserved to the states


The bill of rights rap yo
The Bill of Rights Rap, Confederation?Yo.

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tlt6R1KD4E0

  • “the first 10 amendments are the bill of rights”


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