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New Deal Chapter 15

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New DealChapter 15

Section 1 – The New Deal Fights the Depression

Section 2 – The 2nd New Deal Takes Hold

Section 3 – The New Deal Affects Many Groups

Section 4 – Culture in the 1930’s

Section 5 – The Impact of the New Deal

America is Ready for a Change Election 1932

  • Franklin D. Roosevelt

    • Democratic Candidate

  • Herbert Hoover

    • Republican Incumbent

Roosevelt Has A Long History in Government

  • Distant Cousin to Theodore Roosevelt

  • Assistant Sec. of Navy in the Wilson Adm.

  • Vice Presidential Candidate with Cox in 1920

  • Governor of New York

    • Good Record Concerning the Depression

    • One of the 1st Governors to support direct relief by the states and unemployment insurance

Roosevelt’s Platform

  • New Deal for the American People

    • Relief for the Needy

      • Old Age and Unemployment Insurance

      • Federal Relief

    • Economic Recovery

      • Crop Controls

      • Lower Tariffs

      • Government and Business Work Together

    • Financial Reform

      • Stock Market Regulation

No Contest

Hoover Flags

Hoover Blankets

  • Hoover addresses a large crowd in his 1932 campaign.

  • Hoover’s image was very bad and during the campaign he constantly had to defend his record.


Election of 1932

Lame Duck Presidency“An Unfortunate Wait”

  • It would be 4 months before FDR would take office.

  • Why?

  • In that time there was an assassination attempt made on FDR.

20th Amendment

  • Known as the “Lame Duck Amendment”

  • February 1933

  • Changes dates for Congress and Presidential Inauguration

    • Congress goes from March 4 to January 3

    • President goes from March 4 to January 20

FDR Takes Office

Listen to FDR Address the Nation:

1st Hundred Days

Listen to Roosevelt’s Speech:

  • Roosevelt sets to work immediately and calls for a special session of Congress for March 9th.

  • FDR and Congress will keep their nose to the grindstone to try to do something for everyone.

1st Hundred Days

  • Banking

  • Stock Market

  • Unemployment

  • Public Works

  • Agriculture

  • Industry

Reform and Help For:

Americans Panic

  • In the months before FDR took office many banks had taken “Bank Holidays” to save their banks. This caused “Runs” on banks and widespread panic, as well as a lack of confidence in America’s banking system.

  • People began to withdraw any money they had in gold and hoard it at home.

Banking Reform

  • FDR declares a “National Bank Holiday from March 6-9.

  • Stops export of all gold, silver, and currency

  • March 9 FDR pushed congress to pass the following act to help banks. (It took 40 minutes.)

    • Emergency Banking Relief Act

Emergency Banking Relief Act

  • 1. Gave the President power over banking

  • 2. Established to help reorganize banking

    • Banks were divided into catagories

      • 1st – Banks with 90% of all money, about ½ of all banks were reopened on March 15th

      • 2nd – Weaker banks could only pay out some money to account holders

      • 3rd – Weakest banks to survive couldn’t pay out to account holders but could only take deposits

      • 4th – 1000 small banks were closed

Economy Act

  • March 10

  • Balance the Budget

    • Cut salaries of government employees

    • Cut pensions and allowances to veterans (later rescinded)

    • Reorganization of Government

Fireside Chats

  • March 12

  • FDR gives his 1st “Fireside Chat” to explain the banking act and calm the public.

Listen to FDR Address the Nation:

New Deal Programs

Federal Securities Act

  • Gives the Federal Trade Commission the power to police all new stocks and bonds

  • Required that new stock be accompanied by certain information

  • FTC could police the Stockbrokers

  • May 1933

Securities and Exchange ActJune 1934

  • Set up to regulate trading in securities in the stock market

  • Set up the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

  • Gave it the power to license securities exchanges – places where stocks and bonds are bought and sold

  • Gave the Federal Reserve Board the power to regulate the money supply used to finance the trading of securities

    • Control the “Margin Requirement” – amount of money an investor must put up when making a purchase

    • Higher margin requirements cuts down on speculation

  • Prevent people with inside information about companies from “rigging” the stock market for their own profit – called “Insider Trading”

Communications Act

  • Sets up the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

  • Regulates radio, telegraph, and cable communication both interstate and foreign

Glass-Steagall Act1933

  • Removed banks from investments business

  • Restricted the use of banking funds for speculation

  • Created the FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

    • Guaranteed individual bank deposits under $5,000

    • Today it is guaranteed up to $250,000 (2011).

Agricultural Adjustment Act

  • Reduce Production to Raise Crop Prices

  • Pay farmers to leave a certain amount of land unseeded.

  • Some crops were already to developed so the government paid farmers to destroy crops

  • Paid hog farmers to kill hogs

  • Finance payments to farmers by taxing people who process farm products

Criticism of the AAA

  • Destruction of crops and livestock while people are going hungry

  • Benefit Big Landowners and Not Small Farmers

Farmers receiving AAA payments in 1939.

Tennessee Valley Authority

  • Development of the Tennessee Valley with a systems of dams

    • Hydroelectric Power

    • Flood Control

    • Erosion Control

    • Distribution and Production of Fertilizer

    • Recreational Areas

    • Employment

  • Impacts a 7 State Area

    • See page 520

Civilian Conservation Corps

  • March 1933

  • CCC provides unemployment relief

  • 1st of the relief agencies

  • Organized under the Dept. of Labor, Forestry Office, and the Army

A CCC pillowcase on display at the CCC Museum in Michigan.


  • Recruited unemployed young men between 18-25 for work in

    • Forests for fire towers and fire control

    • Farm country for soil conservation

    • River valleys for flood control by building levies and dams

    • Road building and parks and recreation maintenance

  • Paid $30 month of which the men kept $5 and $25 was sent home to family

  • By 1941 – 2.5 million young men had served

CCC In Action

Planting Crops

Clearing Land

Fighting Fire

Federal Emergency Relief Adm.

  • FERA created in May 1933

  • Harry Hopkins – Administrator

  • Initial Appropriation of 500 million

  • Provides Grants to states for unemployment relief.

    • Federal Funds $1 for $3 from the states

  • Didn’t immediately meet the needs of the unemployed so a temporary administration was created to help unemployed workers.

    • Civil Works Administration

Civil Works AdministrationCWA

  • Created public jobs to help the unemployed during the winter of 1933-1934.

  • Most were unskilled workers and the jobs were simple.

    • Raking leaves

    • Picking up trash

    • Sweeping streets

    • Road maintenance

  • 4 million people employed

  • Built 40,000 schools

  • Paid 50,000 teachers

  • Critics felt it was just make-work and a waste of money

National Industrial Recovery Act

  • Created June 1933

  • Harold Ickes – Administrator and Sec. of the Interior

  • National Recovery Administration (NRA)

    • Set codes of fair practice, working conditions, wages, and work hours

    • Promised labor rights to organize and bargain collectively

    • Symbol is the Blue Eagle

Public Works Administration

  • Construction of public buildings, schools, dams, bridges, roads, hospitals, airports, etc.

  • Critics felt it was just make-work and a waste of money

Help for Housing Needs

  • Home Owners Loan Corporation

    • Provide government loans to homeowners who faced foreclosure

  • National Housing Act

    • Created the Federal Housing Administration (FHA)

    • Continues today to provide loans for home mortgages and repairs

The Supreme Court Reacts

  • Court strikes down the NIRA

    • NIRA had given too much power to the executive branch

    • Codes governed Intrastate commerce and Congress can only oversee Interstate commerce

  • Court strikes down the AAA

    • Processing tax was unconstitutional because it was taxing one specific group to benefit another

Roosevelt vs. the Supreme Court

  • Supreme Court consists of ? Members.

    • Nine

    • Serve for Life

  • 4 justices usually voted for New Deal Programs

  • 4 justices were very conservative and voted against New Deal Legislation

  • 1 justice often voted with the conservatives

FDR’s Plan to Reorganize the Court

  • Arguments

    • Nine men were too old to keep up with the case load

  • Plan

    • FDR would appoint 1 justice for each one who failed to retire at the age of 70

    • # of Justices would increase from 9 to 15

Political Mis-step for Roosevelt

  • Critics Say

    • President is trying to stack the court with liberal judges who will support the New Deal

    • It would give the President too much power and take away the independence of the Supreme Court

    • It would go against the theory of Constitutional Government

Court Packing Bill Fails

  • One justice retires allowing FDR to appoint a liberal judge

  • Court proved they were not behind

  • Court softened its position on other New Deal Programs and upheld them WHY?

    • May have adopted a more liberal stance to save itself

    • OR the bills coming before the court were better constructed than those in the earlier years

  • Main supporter of the bill in Congress died

Packing the Supreme Court

New Deal Critics

Critics of the New Deal

  • Conservatives

    • American Liberty League (the Far Right)

      • Apposed to Government intervention in Business and the Economy

    • Fascists

      • Fascism – political philosophy that holds the individual 2nd to nation and race

      • Advocates government by dictatorship

      • Private ownership of land and capital but economic activity is controlled strictly by the state

      • Doesn’t think the New Deal goes far enough in controlling the economy

      • Fascism on the rise in Europe with Mussolini in Italy and Hitler in Germany

  • Liberals

    • Communists

      • Communist don’t like FDR helping the poor because then they won’t want to overthrow capitalism

Huey P. Long

  • Senator and Governor of Louisiana

  • “Kingfish” nickname taken from the

    Amos and Andy Radio Show

  • Long was very corrupt

  • Worked his way up the political ladder

  • Had is eye on the Presidency in 1936 / 1940

  • “Share Our Wealth Plan”

    • Promised “Every Man A King” who would own a house, a car and a radio

    • Guarantee every family a minimum annual income of $5,000

    • Pay for the plan by taxing the income, property, and inheritance of the wealthy

Dr. Francis Townsend

  • Townsend Plan

    (a.k.a. Old Age Revolving Pension Plan)

    • Federal monthly pension of $200 to people over 60, but they must spend the full amount each month.

      • Keep money in circulation

      • Help the older people

    • Tax on Commercial Transactions

Townsend supporters rally in Columbus, Kansas in May 1936.Library of Congress Photo, LC-USF34-004168-E DLC

Father CoughlinThe Radio Priest

  • Radio station called “The Shrine of the Little Flower”

  • At first he supported FDR, but broke away when he felt Roosevelt wasn’t controlling big business enough.

  • National Union of Social Justice

    • For Social Reform

    • Supported Silver Inflation

    • Against

      • Bankers

      • Jews

      • Communists

      • Labor Unions

      • New Deal

  • Appealed to Populist in the Midwest

    and Irish Catholics in the large cities

  • Audience of 40-45 million

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