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Ch. 9 Key Issue 1. Why Does Development Vary Among Countries?. What do you think development is?. How should development be explained? How should it be viewed? Is it an inherently “Western” idea?. What is Development?.

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Ch 9 key issue 1

Ch. 9 Key Issue 1

Why Does Development Vary Among Countries?


What do you think development is
What do you think development is?

  • How should development be explained?

  • How should it be viewed? Is it an inherently “Western” idea?


What is development
What is Development?

  • Process of improving the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology.

  • Development implies progress- usually means improvements in tech., production, and social and economic welfare of people

  • Countries cluster at the high (MDC) and low (LDC) ends of the spectrum

    • MDCs and LDCs tend to cluster together in space


Key terms indexes
Key Terms/Indexes

  • Gross National Product (GNP)- total dollar value of the officially recorded goods and services produced in and out of a country

  • Gross DomesticProduct (GDP)- total value of goods and services produced only within the country per year

  • Gross National Income (GNI)- GNI = GDP+income -payments to other countries

  • Informal economy is not counted- what the government does not keep track of or is illegal


The 3 indicators of development
The 3 Indicators of Development

  • Stems from idea that Indus. Rev and tech. can improve lives of people

  • There are three ways we can measure a country’s development:

    • Economic indicators

    • Social indicators

    • Demographic indicators


Human development index
Human Development Index

  • To reveal the level of development, the HDI, created by the UN, combines 4 factors:

    • 1 economic

    • 2 social and

    • 1 demographic indicator

  • HDI ranges from 0-1

  • 30 of lowest 32 countries found in sub-Saharan Africa


Economic indicators of development
Economic Indicators of Development

  • HDI uses Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per Capita (per person)

    • Per capita GDP can help determine average wages in a country

      • Dividing GDP by the population (per capita) = contributions made by each person towards a country’s wealth

  • GDP alone can be misleading: Not everyone is starving in LDCs with GDP p/c of $3000. Or wealthy in US with $45,000 GDP p/c


Other economic development indicators
Other Economic Development Indicators

  • These indicators are used to distinguish between MDCs and LDCs but not used to calculate HDI.

    • Types of Jobs

    • Worker productivity

    • Consumer goods


Types of jobs
Types of Jobs

  • Wages are higher in MDCs than LDCs because people earn living in different ways

  • Called the International Division of Labor

    • Primary sector- extracting materials, hard manual labor (mostly LDCs)

    • Secondary sector- manufacturing process (raw materials into products) (more LDCs than MDCs now)

    • Tertiary sector- services: exchanging goods and services for money (mostly MDCs)


Occupational structure
Occupational Structure

  • China GDP $6,200

  • agriculture 49%, industry 22%, services 29%

  • Australia GDP $32,000

  • agriculture 3.7%, industry 26.4%, services 70%

  • Philippines GDP $5,100

  • agriculture 36%, industry 16%, services 48%


Occupational structure1
Occupational Structure

  • Luxembourg GDP $59,143

  • Agriculture 1%, industry 30%, services 69%

  • Singapore GDP $21,492

  • agriculture 0%, industry 30%, services 70%

  • Equatorial Guinea GDP $5,900

  • agriculture 20%, industry 60%, services 20%


Occupational structure2
Occupational Structure

  • Haiti GDP $346

  • Agriculture 32%, industry 20%, services 48%

  • Malawi GDP $156

  • agriculture 37%, industry 29%, services 34%


Worker productivity
Worker Productivity

  • Workers are more productive in MDCs – they produce more with less effort

    • MDCs have machines and tools

    • LDCs rely on human and animal power

  • Value added per capita measures productivity

    • Selling price – inputs = VA

  • High p/c GDP allows countries to invest in productivity  increases wealth


Consumer goods
Consumer Goods

  • High GDP p/c wealth used to purchase cars, cell phones, internet, etc.

  • More necessary in MDCs than in LDCs- population is more dispersed

  • Creates a gap of “haves” and have-nots” in LDCs = conflict?

    • Owners of consumer goods are concentrated in urban areas in LDCs


Social indicators of development
Social Indicators of Development

  • MDCs use wealth to provide schools and healthcare  healthier, educated, protected from hardships = economically productive citizens

  • 2 social indicators used to measure HDI: Education and Literacy

    • Student/teacher ratio- Less students, more personalized instruction in MDCs

    • Literacy rate- More book, magazines, newspapers printed in MDCs


Social indicators of development1
Social Indicators of Development

  • Health and welfare

    • Diet- more calories and protein in MDCs

    • MDCs have resources to care for sick- more hospitals/doctors p/c

    • LDCs have to pay more for health care- gov’t does not have GDP resources to pay for

      • MDCs have “safety net” programs”: Struggled to pay for recently because of slowing economic growth and aging population

        • Faced with cutting benefits or increasing taxes


Demographic indicators of development
Demographic Indicators of Development

  • Demographics: characteristics of a population (demographic transition)

  • HDI uses life expectancy as main indicator

    • Better health and welfare permit people to live longer (60 in LDC, 70 in MDC)

    • Low life expectancy means more young people in LDCs (6x more)

  • IMR, NIR and CBR can be used to distinguish between MDCs and LDCs


Uneven development within countries
Uneven Development within Countries

  • Islands of Development

    • Gov’ts prioritizing creation of wealth

    • Companies usually set up close to their resources, need cities to house workers and fulfill their needs

    • Leads to one super developed city in an “underdeveloped’ country

    • Port Gentile, Gabon, Africa – oil city


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