A World Divided. ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR. Key Questions. 1. How did the war-time allies attempt to prevent future wars? 2. Why did the United States and the USSR go from being friends to enemies after 1945?
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ORIGINSOF THE COLD WAR
Term introduced into modern context by Walter Lippmann. Refers to a set of rivalries between USA and USSR.
Different from a ‘Hot War’.
Defined second half of 20th century. Shaped politics on every continent.Meaning of Cold War
The USA was capitalist The USSR was communist
IDEOLOGY IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE IT IS THE MOTIVATION AND JUSTIFICATION BEHIND WHAT COUNTRIES DO.
IF IDEOLOGIES IN CONFLICT THEN THEIR ACTIONS WILL BE IN CONFLICT.Underlying Tensions: Ideological differences
Where all factors of production (industry, business and agriculture) are owned by the state for the good of everyone.
Where all factors of production (industry, business and agriculture) are owned by private individuals or firms who run them for their own profit.
peace brought about by prosperity achieved through capitalism and democracy
Distrust between US & USSR
Cold War Begins
How did this raise tensions between the USSR and the USA?
Who was at fault – the USA, the USSR or both?
Capitalism versus Communism.
Russia excluded from Versailles.
American support for Whites in Russian Civil War.
Soviet Government not recognized by USA.
Soviets proclaimed world revolution.
Diplomatic relations established 1933 for economic reasons only.Strange Bedfellows
Russia bore the brunt of the war effort;
20 million killed. 1700 towns, 31000 factories, 100,000 collective farms, 128 billion dollars of property destroyed.
1941 pleading for second front. Suspicious of Allied special pleading. Source of conflict.
Not invited to Atlantic Conference. Tensions apparent.Emergence of the Cold War
USA and Britain not seriously interested.
Russia wants protection from Western invasion.
Russia wants to use defeated countries to rebuild its own.
Wants to keep some conquered lands.
Goals contrary to USA free trade ambitions.Russian Interests: Buffer Zone
Establish bases around the world during war.
Allow them to protect military strength around the globe – bases not territory important
Launching pads for potential attacks, preserve access to raw materials and deny them to rivals.
An archipelago of bases from Manila to Casablanca.
The US wants access to markets for trade as they fear a return of the Great Depression.The US perspective
Self-determination or free elections
DisarmamentCold War Origins: Post-War World Vision
Little evidence that they wanted to challenge USA.
Concern amongst American thinkers of potential future threat Russia posed in the unstable postwar environment.
Worried that America’s access to oil and raw materials could be cut off by nationalist and communist movements (supported by the USSR).Potential Threat
USA determined to prevent any one country from dominating the Eurasian land mass.
Explains USA opposition to USSR presence in Mediterranean, Middle East, Turkey, Iran, etc.
Explains why USA became involved in Korea and Vietnam.Mistrust and Misunderstanding
US built up Nuclear arsenal in anticipation of the Soviets being chief threat.
Between mid 1947 and 1948, 40 nuclear bombs, dozens of bombers built.Arms Race before the Arms Race
Stalin now wanted to tighten his control on each country. He did this by using Cominform and Comecon.
Cominform (Communist Information Bureau) 1947.
coordinated governments in Eastern Europe.
Ran meetings and gave out instructions to Communist governments as to what they must do.
Comecon (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) 1949.
coordinated industries and trade of Eastern Europe.
traded with each other and not the West.
favoured USSR produced goods and guaranteed a cheap supply of raw materials for the USSR.
Set up the bank for Socialist countries.COMINFORM AND COMECON
In August 1962, the Cuban and Soviet governments secretly began to build bases in Cuba for a number of medium-range and intermediate-range ballistic nuclear missiles (MRBMs and IRBMs) with the ability to strike most of the continental United States.
Worried about SU becoming friends
with Cuba – only 80 miles away from
US – SU could put missiles on Cuba that
could destroy the US within minutes
Wants Castro dead – Capitalist to take
JFK must be seen as strong after the Bay
of Pigs otherwise never be elected back in
2. Airstrike on the Cuban missile sites to ensure that they could not fire any nuclear weapons
3. Invade Cuba and t ake the country over to ensure that it can never be used for such a site
4. Blockade Cuba with US warships to block any Soviet ships from entering Cuba with the nuclear weapons
5. Start a nuclear attack on Cuba and if necessary the Soviet Union
Avoids direct confrontation and war – that would be nuclear
Puts the ball in Khrushchev’s court
If war – Soviets could strike in Europe – start WW3
2. Tell ships to continue on their present course – call America’s bluff
3. Try and make a deal with JFK – missiles in Cuba for missiles in Turkey
4. Invade Berlin to create a distraction
5. Support ships with submarines in the area – do not turn back
MAKE A DEAL
Sends a telegram offering a summit – no strings attached – probably sent by Khrushchev
Second telegram – with demands for missiles to be taken off Turkey and no invasion of Cuba in the future – probably sent by hardliners
Soviet Union can NOT just back down without any concessions!
BUT can not start a nuclear war it knows it can NOT win
Bobby Kennedy meets Dobrynin SU representative and assures him that missiles will be taken off Turkey
Agreed that Missiles should return to the SU and that missile bases on Cuba should be dismantled
US agrees NOT to invade Cuba
The ships turn around and the world pulls back from nuclear war
US takes obsolete missiles out of Turkey – kept secret
A Hotline was set up between Moscow and Washington – directly between the Presidents – to stop any further misunderstandings
In 1963 a Test Ban Treaty was signed – no more nuclear weapons could be tested in the atmosphere
Nuclear war had been avoided
I believe that we can win victory for freedom both at home and abroad. I believe that we can be strong enough and determined enough to win those victories. I believe that appeasement and weakness can only bring war. I’ve asked and will continue to ask: Why Not Victory–why not victory for sound, constitutional principles and government–why not victory over the evils of communism?
LBJ has to answer the question “what are you doing about communism?”
4th August two American gunboats the Maddox and the Turner Joy were attacked by the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin
Why is this going to have an impact on the war?
The Gulf of Tonkin resolution
It was “like a grandma’s nightshirt – it covered everything”
What powers did the President gain from the resolution?
Congress passed the resolution on 7th August 1964 by 88 votes to 2 votes
How does this help LBJ?
He has full political support from both Democrats and Republicans
After the Gulf of Tonkin American aircraft bombed North Vietnam for the first time
LBJ’s approval rating went from 42% to 72%
LBJ won the ‘64 election with 61% of the popular vote
How does this help LBJ?
The Working group report 1965
What recommendations does the report make?
Detente refers to a period of ‘apparent’ easing or thaw in tensions between the two superpowers
Organise the factors into a “Diamond nine”
Looking at somebody else’s ‘diamond nine’
Compare your choices and discuss your reasons. Rearrange your cards, if you have changed your mind
If you have moved the cards prepare to explain why