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contribution to. Mechoso. Bretherton. Wood. Weller. Huebert. A Chilean perspective of VOCALS. Laura Gallardo Klenner Center for Mathematical Modeling, University of Chile (CNRS UMI 2807) [email protected] SOLAS/IGAC?. http://www.joss.ucar.edu/vocals/. Outline.

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a chilean perspective of vocals

contribution to






A Chilean perspective of VOCALS

Laura Gallardo Klenner

Center for Mathematical Modeling, University of Chile (CNRS UMI 2807)

[email protected]


VOCALS lgk misu06


  • VOCALS REx: a few highlights
  • Anthropogenic S perturbation of Sc?
    • Emissions
    • Coastal lows
    • Simulations
    • Observations
  • Summary and next steps


VOCALS lgk misu06

why focusing over the south east pacific sep




Why focusing over the South East Pacific (SEP)?
  • Subtropical high (subsidence)
  • Andes Cordillera induces LLJ
  • Upwelling cold water and nutrients (fishery)
  • CCN production
  • Persistent Sc
  • Effective cooling
  • Important for regional and global climate
  • …but models don’t get the Sc right 
  • +Substantial anthropogenic perturbations

VOCALS lgk misu06

cgcm problems

CFS Errors




CGCM Problems
  • There is a meridional shift in ITCZ
  • a warm SST bias
  • and insufficient stratocumulus cloud cover

VOCALS lgk misu06

Mechoso, 2006

south eastern pacific western south america wow
South Eastern Pacific/Western South America…WOW!!!
  • Active volcanoes (natural emissions)
  • Atacama: dryest desert of the world between the open Pacific and the heigh Andes (dust and circulations)
  • Intensive and long-term mining activities (anthropogenic emissions)
  • Humboldt current, upwelling and fishery (biogenic emissions, air-sea exchange and circulations)
  • Most persistent and extensive subtropical Sc deck of the SH (microphysics and energy balance)

VOCALS lgk misu06


DMS, sea salt

Garreaud, 2006

VOCALS lgk misu06

pockets of open cells pocs
Pockets of open cells (POCs)

e.g., WOW

VOCALS lgk misu06


In the remote marine atmosphere the supply of DMS and its oxidation mechanisms limit the rates of new particle nucleation and growth.

These processes probably control the re-filling of POCs with clouds.

Iodine, ammonia, and organics may also play a role.

e.g., WOW

Huebert, 2006

VOCALS lgk misu06


Surface forcing from buoy driving a one-dimensional ocean model (PWP) produces a surface layer that is too warm and too salty. Additional cooling and freshening is needed…..Eddies?


e.g., WOW

VOCALS lgk misu06

Weller, 2006


1 month intensive campaign in October 2007


  • NB. Optimi$m
  • NASA/NOAA/NSF proposals under review
  • Chilean projects to be submitted July 11th

VOCALS lgk misu06


Chilean Air Force

Swedish connection…CCN characterization

S ~ 250 kUSD

VOCALS lgk misu06


IMARPE fishery research cruise: Oct-Nov 2007

International Partners - Peru

Field experiment: October-November 2007

  • Main goals (main instruments):
  • Characterize the near-coastal 3D wind structure (ship-borne wind profiling radar).
  • Assess the relation between the wind and mesoscale ocean processes (upwelling and eddies) (wind profiler, CTDs and ADCP)
  • Determine the dynamical and thermodynamical structure associated with the coastal clearing (ship-borne radiosoundings).

Study region

VOCALS lgk misu06

Cost ~ $70K (Peru)

chile is world s largest cu producer peru is also a cu producer
Chile is world’s largest Cu producer… Peru is also a Cu producer

Lefhon et al, 1999

CONAMA, 2001

VOCALS lgk misu06


Could the man made S emissions affect the cloud radiative properties? Under which conditions are anthropogenic emissions transported offshore?

VOCALS lgk misu06


COASTAL LOWS once a week

VOCALS lgk misu06

Garreaud et al, 2002

coupled circulations summer
Coupled circulations/summer

VOCALS lgk misu06

Mechoso, 2006

strong easterly wind events downwind from the largest smelter cl like


82 events Composite

CL like

Cerro Moreno

Strong easterly wind events downwind from the largest smelter…CL like?
  • Evalution of Antofagasta soundings 1989-2002
  • Focus on extreme events: v700hPa >5 m/s

VOCALS lgk misu06

Huneeus, 2003

swedish match hirlam fields ca 0 1

Dynamical Interpolation




Dry / wet deposition

Emissions (5%)

Emissions (95%)

Dry deposition

Swedish MATCH+HIRLAM fields (ca. 0.1°)

VOCALS lgk misu06

model outputs
Model Outputs

VOCALS lgk misu06


Average Jul20-Aug20

Event July 26

We should expect changes in cloud droplet radii  …or????

VOCALS lgk misu06


July 26

Average Jul20-Aug20


Suggestive, isn’t it?

VOCALS lgk misu06


MODIS-Cloud droplet concentration

VOCALS lgk misu06

Wood 2005


…emission strengths/distribution …

    • Anthropogenic and volcanic: compile, order, check, extrapolate…
    • Biogenic:…parameterize…ROUGH estimate
  • …regional distribution and relative contributions..
    • Dispersion modeling using re-analysis and downscaling
    • Compare with available observations
  • …which aerosols become CCN…
    • Intensive campaign (2008):
      • activated aerosols at a camanchaca station (CVI+on-line analysis)
      • PM10/PM2.5 at the same site & PIXE analyses & ionchromatograph
      • SO2 continuosly
      • Sunphotometer(s)
    • Deploy passive samplers for N-S transect and seasonal changes
  • ..changes in reff, CDNC…
    • Regional climate model simulations
    • Trend analyses for satellite data

FONDECYT 2007-2010

Ana María Córdova (CEAZA)

Manuel Leiva (CENMA)

Laura Gallardo (CMM)

VOCALS lgk misu06


Laguna Chaxa, Atacama, Chile

  • The SEP region is a fantastic research area!!..with a large potential for scientific growth
  • VOCALS offers a unique opportunity to improve our (quantitative) understanding of aerosol-cloud-climate and land-sea-atmosphere interactions
  • There is “evidence” of an impact of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols on the subtropical Sc deck (Huneeus et al, 2006)
  • The Swedish scientific contribution is key for characterizing the coastal CCN

VOCALS lgk misu06