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contribution to. Mechoso. Bretherton. Wood. Weller. Huebert. A Chilean perspective of VOCALS. Laura Gallardo Klenner Center for Mathematical Modeling, University of Chile (CNRS UMI 2807) [email protected] SOLAS/IGAC?. http://www.joss.ucar.edu/vocals/. Outline.

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A chilean perspective of vocals

contribution to

Mechoso

Bretherton

Wood

Weller

Huebert

A Chilean perspective of VOCALS

Laura Gallardo Klenner

Center for Mathematical Modeling, University of Chile (CNRS UMI 2807)

[email protected]

SOLAS/IGAC?

VOCALS lgk misu06

http://www.joss.ucar.edu/vocals/


Outline
Outline

  • VOCALS REx: a few highlights

  • Anthropogenic S perturbation of Sc?

    • Emissions

    • Coastal lows

    • Simulations

    • Observations

  • Summary and next steps

“Camanchaca”

VOCALS lgk misu06


Why focusing over the south east pacific sep

CC%

SST

CF

Why focusing over the South East Pacific (SEP)?

  • Subtropical high (subsidence)

  • Andes Cordillera induces LLJ

  • Upwelling cold water and nutrients (fishery)

  • CCN production

  • Persistent Sc

  • Effective cooling

  • Important for regional and global climate

  • …but models don’t get the Sc right 

  • +Substantial anthropogenic perturbations

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Cgcm problems

CFS Errors

Prec

SST

CLD

CGCM Problems

  • There is a meridional shift in ITCZ

  • a warm SST bias

  • and insufficient stratocumulus cloud cover

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Mechoso, 2006


South eastern pacific western south america wow
South Eastern Pacific/Western South America…WOW!!!

  • Active volcanoes (natural emissions)

  • Atacama: dryest desert of the world between the open Pacific and the heigh Andes (dust and circulations)

  • Intensive and long-term mining activities (anthropogenic emissions)

  • Humboldt current, upwelling and fishery (biogenic emissions, air-sea exchange and circulations)

  • Most persistent and extensive subtropical Sc deck of the SH (microphysics and energy balance)

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DMS, sea salt

Garreaud, 2006

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Pockets of open cells pocs
Pockets of open cells (POCs)

e.g., WOW

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In the remote marine atmosphere the supply of DMS and its oxidation mechanisms limit the rates of new particle nucleation and growth.

These processes probably control the re-filling of POCs with clouds.

Iodine, ammonia, and organics may also play a role.

e.g., WOW

Huebert, 2006

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Surface forcing from buoy driving a one-dimensional ocean model (PWP) produces a surface layer that is too warm and too salty. Additional cooling and freshening is needed…..Eddies?

)

e.g., WOW

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Weller, 2006


VOCALS lgk misu06 model (PWP) produces a surface layer that is too warm and too salty.

Wood, 2006


1 month intensive campaign in October 2007 model (PWP) produces a surface layer that is too warm and too salty.

8

  • NB. Optimi$m

  • NASA/NOAA/NSF proposals under review

  • Chilean projects to be submitted July 11th

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Chilean Air Force model (PWP) produces a surface layer that is too warm and too salty.

Swedish connection…CCN characterization

S ~ 250 kUSD

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IMARPE fishery research cruise: Oct-Nov 2007 model (PWP) produces a surface layer that is too warm and too salty.

International Partners - Peru

Field experiment: October-November 2007

  • Main goals (main instruments):

  • Characterize the near-coastal 3D wind structure (ship-borne wind profiling radar).

  • Assess the relation between the wind and mesoscale ocean processes (upwelling and eddies) (wind profiler, CTDs and ADCP)

  • Determine the dynamical and thermodynamical structure associated with the coastal clearing (ship-borne radiosoundings).

Study region

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Cost ~ $70K (Peru)


Chile is world s largest cu producer peru is also a cu producer
Chile is world’s largest Cu producer model (PWP) produces a surface layer that is too warm and too salty. … Peru is also a Cu producer

Lefhon et al, 1999

CONAMA, 2001

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Could the man made S emissions affect the cloud radiative properties? Under which conditions are anthropogenic emissions transported offshore?

VOCALS lgk misu06


COASTAL LOWS properties? Under which conditions are anthropogenic emissions transported offshore?once a week

VOCALS lgk misu06

Garreaud et al, 2002


Coupled circulations summer
Coupled circulations/summer properties? Under which conditions are anthropogenic emissions transported offshore?

VOCALS lgk misu06

Mechoso, 2006


Strong easterly wind events downwind from the largest smelter cl like

Chuquicamata properties? Under which conditions are anthropogenic emissions transported offshore?

82 events Composite

CL like

Cerro Moreno

Strong easterly wind events downwind from the largest smelter…CL like?

  • Evalution of Antofagasta soundings 1989-2002

  • Focus on extreme events: v700hPa >5 m/s

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Huneeus, 2003


Swedish match hirlam fields ca 0 1

Dynamical Interpolation properties? Under which conditions are anthropogenic emissions transported offshore?

OH

S-SO2

S-SO4

Dry / wet deposition

Emissions (5%)

Emissions (95%)

Dry deposition

Swedish MATCH+HIRLAM fields (ca. 0.1°)

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Model outputs
Model Outputs properties? Under which conditions are anthropogenic emissions transported offshore?

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Average Jul20-Aug20 properties? Under which conditions are anthropogenic emissions transported offshore?

Event July 26

We should expect changes in cloud droplet radii  …or????

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Observations

July 26 properties? Under which conditions are anthropogenic emissions transported offshore?

Average Jul20-Aug20

Observations?

Suggestive, isn’t it?

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MODIS-Cloud droplet concentration properties? Under which conditions are anthropogenic emissions transported offshore?

VOCALS lgk misu06

Wood 2005


  • …emission strengths/distribution … properties? Under which conditions are anthropogenic emissions transported offshore?

    • Anthropogenic and volcanic: compile, order, check, extrapolate…

    • Biogenic:…parameterize…ROUGH estimate

  • …regional distribution and relative contributions..

    • Dispersion modeling using re-analysis and downscaling

    • Compare with available observations

  • …which aerosols become CCN…

    • Intensive campaign (2008):

      • activated aerosols at a camanchaca station (CVI+on-line analysis)

      • PM10/PM2.5 at the same site & PIXE analyses & ionchromatograph

      • SO2 continuosly

      • Sunphotometer(s)

    • Deploy passive samplers for N-S transect and seasonal changes

  • ..changes in reff, CDNC…

    • Regional climate model simulations

    • Trend analyses for satellite data

FONDECYT 2007-2010

Ana María Córdova (CEAZA)

Manuel Leiva (CENMA)

Laura Gallardo (CMM)

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Summary

Laguna Chaxa, Atacama, Chile properties? Under which conditions are anthropogenic emissions transported offshore?

Summary

  • The SEP region is a fantastic research area!!..with a large potential for scientific growth

  • VOCALS offers a unique opportunity to improve our (quantitative) understanding of aerosol-cloud-climate and land-sea-atmosphere interactions

  • There is “evidence” of an impact of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols on the subtropical Sc deck (Huneeus et al, 2006)

  • The Swedish scientific contribution is key for characterizing the coastal CCN

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