Juvenile justice
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Juvenile Justice . A guide to the system. Why do we have it?. Children and adults were incarcerated together Judges had to sentence a child by: jail with adults twice their age release them with no repercussions. First Juvenile Court Illinois, 1899

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Juvenile Justice

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Juvenile justice

Juvenile Justice

A guide to the system


Why do we have it

Why do we have it?

  • Children and adults were incarcerated together

  • Judges had to sentence a child by:

    • jail with adults twice their age

    • release them with no repercussions.

  • First Juvenile Court

    • Illinois, 1899

  • Source:Schwartz, Robert G., and Marsha Levick. "When A “Right” Is Not Enough." Criminology & Public Policy 9.2 (2010): 365-373. Criminal Justice Abstracts with Full Text. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.


Why were kids in jail

Why were kids in jail?

  • 1890-1920

    • Kids were involved in criminal activity

    • Emergence of different jails

      • Refugee Houses

      • Reformatories

      • Female only institutions

        Source:  "Development of the Juvenile Justice System." Findlaw. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


Refugee houses

Refugee Houses

  • “Focused on the reeducation of youth and used indeterminate sentencing, religious training, and apprenticeships in various trades”

  • Promote order and Discipline

  • Problem:

    • Overcrowded

    • Overworked

  • Source:  "Development of the Juvenile Justice System." Findlaw. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


Reformatories

Reformatories

  • Foster Homes normally located on farms

  • Physical labor

  • Problem:

    • Overcrowded

    • Overworked

      Source:  "Development of the Juvenile Justice System." Findlaw. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


Female only institutions

Female only institutions

  • Mid 1880s

  • Teaching domestic skills

    Source:  "Development of the Juvenile Justice System." Findlaw. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


Patriae doctrine

Patriae Doctrine

  • Created to discipline youth committing criminal acts

  • Detailed:

    • State can act as a parent

    • Government can intervene when it’s in the best interest of the child

      Source: Schwartz, Robert G., and Marsha Levick. "When A “Right” Is Not Enough." Criminology & Public Policy 9.2 (2010): 365-373. Criminal Justice Abstracts with Full Text. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.


Juvenile s rights according to congress late 1960s

Juvenile’s Rights According to Congress, late 1960s

  • The right to receive notice of charges

  • The right to obtain legal counsel

  • The right to confrontation and cross-examination

  • The privilege against self-incrimination

  • The right to receive a transcript of the proceeding

  • The right to have an appellate court review the lower court’s decision

    Source: "The Department of Juvenile Services." History of Juvenile Justice in the United States. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


Juvenile delinquency prevention and control act 1968 1974

Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Control Act, 1968 & 1974

  • “(1) youth offenders were to have sight and sound separation from adult offenders to prevent any contact between the two groups

  • (2) youth who have committed status offenses (i.e. curfew, truancy, alcohol possession, etc.) could not be placed in a juvenile or adult detention facility

  • (3) youth could not be detained in adult jails unless certain requirements were met

  • (4) states create plans to reduce the number of minority youth (i.e. disproportionate minority contact) in the juvenile justice system”

    Source:"The Department of Juvenile Services." History of Juvenile Justice in the United States. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


Who is a juvenile

Who is a Juvenile

  • Until 18

  • North Carolina, New Hampshire, Texas, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri

    • Until 17

      Source:"The Department of Juvenile Services." History of Juvenile Justice in the United States. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


When can a juvenile be charged as a adult

When can a juvenile be charged as a adult?

  • 16 in most states

    • Kentucky

      • 14

      • Florida and other states

        • Laws state any person, juvenile or adult will be charged as an adult for murder

          Source:"The Department of Juvenile Services." History of Juvenile Justice in the United States. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


Death penalty

Death Penalty

  • Discontinued in 2005

    • Supreme Court case Roper v. Simmons

      Source: "Juvenile." Juvenile. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


Today s juvenile justice system

Today’s Juvenile Justice System

  • Based on reform

    • Detention centers

    • Educate

      • Return to society

    • Goal:

      • Modification

      • Nonrepeating offenses

        Source: Source:"The Department of Juvenile Services." History of Juvenile Justice in the United States. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


Where do we go

Where do we go?

  • Create safer environments

  • Education in detention center

    Source: Source:"The Department of Juvenile Services." History of Juvenile Justice in the United States. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


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