Juvenile justice
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Juvenile Justice . A guide to the system. Why do we have it?. Children and adults were incarcerated together Judges had to sentence a child by: jail with adults twice their age release them with no repercussions. First Juvenile Court Illinois, 1899

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Juvenile Justice

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Juvenile Justice

A guide to the system


Why do we have it?

  • Children and adults were incarcerated together

  • Judges had to sentence a child by:

    • jail with adults twice their age

    • release them with no repercussions.

  • First Juvenile Court

    • Illinois, 1899

  • Source:Schwartz, Robert G., and Marsha Levick. "When A “Right” Is Not Enough." Criminology & Public Policy 9.2 (2010): 365-373. Criminal Justice Abstracts with Full Text. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.


Why were kids in jail?

  • 1890-1920

    • Kids were involved in criminal activity

    • Emergence of different jails

      • Refugee Houses

      • Reformatories

      • Female only institutions

        Source:  "Development of the Juvenile Justice System." Findlaw. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


Refugee Houses

  • “Focused on the reeducation of youth and used indeterminate sentencing, religious training, and apprenticeships in various trades”

  • Promote order and Discipline

  • Problem:

    • Overcrowded

    • Overworked

  • Source:  "Development of the Juvenile Justice System." Findlaw. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


Reformatories

  • Foster Homes normally located on farms

  • Physical labor

  • Problem:

    • Overcrowded

    • Overworked

      Source:  "Development of the Juvenile Justice System." Findlaw. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


Female only institutions

  • Mid 1880s

  • Teaching domestic skills

    Source:  "Development of the Juvenile Justice System." Findlaw. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


Patriae Doctrine

  • Created to discipline youth committing criminal acts

  • Detailed:

    • State can act as a parent

    • Government can intervene when it’s in the best interest of the child

      Source: Schwartz, Robert G., and Marsha Levick. "When A “Right” Is Not Enough." Criminology & Public Policy 9.2 (2010): 365-373. Criminal Justice Abstracts with Full Text. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.


Juvenile’s Rights According to Congress, late 1960s

  • The right to receive notice of charges

  • The right to obtain legal counsel

  • The right to confrontation and cross-examination

  • The privilege against self-incrimination

  • The right to receive a transcript of the proceeding

  • The right to have an appellate court review the lower court’s decision

    Source: "The Department of Juvenile Services." History of Juvenile Justice in the United States. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Control Act, 1968 & 1974

  • “(1) youth offenders were to have sight and sound separation from adult offenders to prevent any contact between the two groups

  • (2) youth who have committed status offenses (i.e. curfew, truancy, alcohol possession, etc.) could not be placed in a juvenile or adult detention facility

  • (3) youth could not be detained in adult jails unless certain requirements were met

  • (4) states create plans to reduce the number of minority youth (i.e. disproportionate minority contact) in the juvenile justice system”

    Source:"The Department of Juvenile Services." History of Juvenile Justice in the United States. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


Who is a Juvenile

  • Until 18

  • North Carolina, New Hampshire, Texas, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri

    • Until 17

      Source:"The Department of Juvenile Services." History of Juvenile Justice in the United States. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


When can a juvenile be charged as a adult?

  • 16 in most states

    • Kentucky

      • 14

      • Florida and other states

        • Laws state any person, juvenile or adult will be charged as an adult for murder

          Source:"The Department of Juvenile Services." History of Juvenile Justice in the United States. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


Death Penalty

  • Discontinued in 2005

    • Supreme Court case Roper v. Simmons

      Source: "Juvenile." Juvenile. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


Today’s Juvenile Justice System

  • Based on reform

    • Detention centers

    • Educate

      • Return to society

    • Goal:

      • Modification

      • Nonrepeating offenses

        Source: Source:"The Department of Juvenile Services." History of Juvenile Justice in the United States. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


Where do we go?

  • Create safer environments

  • Education in detention center

    Source: Source:"The Department of Juvenile Services." History of Juvenile Justice in the United States. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2013.


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