Chapter 2
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`Chapter 2 . When Worlds Collide. The Expansion of Europe. The New Merchant Class/ New Monarchie The Renaissance Portuguese Explorations Columbus Reaches the Americas The Spanish New World Empire. The Expansion of Europe.

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Chapter 2

`Chapter 2

When Worlds Collide

The expansion of europe

The Expansion of Europe

  • The New Merchant Class/ New Monarchie

  • The Renaissance

  • Portuguese Explorations

  • Columbus Reaches the Americas

  • The Spanish New World Empire

The expansion of europe1

The Expansion of Europe

  • European monarchs supported merchants & in return gave out royal contracts

  • & trading monopolies. This relationship supported overseas expansion and trade.

  • 14th/15th Centuries- Commerce greatly expanded, especially in cereals, timber, minerals, salt, fish, wool.

  • It led to the growth of new markets and towns.

The renaissance

The Renaissance

The renaissance1

The renaissance

  • Merchants outfitted the Crusaders, helped finance religious war in Palestine and introduced Europe to new spices and technical innovations. Ex: spices such as cloves, pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon, compass, gunpowder and the printing press.

  • The Renaissance is a period of intellectual and artistic flowering in Europe during the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. There were advancements made in sculpture, art, painting, architecture, science and math. Europeans also began questioning authority, especially the church.

Portuguese explorations

Portuguese Explorations

Portugal was the leader of sea exploration

Portuguese explorations1

Portuguese Explorations

  • Prince Henry of Portugal, also known as the Navigator, financed and promoted the idea of exploring distant lands. His accomplishments included:

  • Sagres Point- He established a school for seamen, geographers, cartographers.

  • b. The invention of the caravel

  • c. He improved shipping instruments

  • d. He helped establish trading bases along Africa’s Western Gold Coast. The trade posts eventually led to the beginning of the African slave trade.

Columbus reached the americas

Columbus Reached the Americas


Chapter 2

The Enterprise of the Indies

Christopher Columbus

  • Columbus’s goal was to find a shortcut to India to establish new trade routes. He won the royal backing of Queen Isabel and King Ferdinand. Who were competing with Portugal for lands, riches and prestige.

Columbus reaches the americas

Columbus Reaches the Americas

The Caribbean

The caribbean

The Caribbean

Native populations were wiped out

Foods were exchanged

Columbus reaches the americas1

Columbus Reaches the Americas



  • Columbus sought to occupy and settle lands for Spain that were not colonized by other monarchs.

  • Columbus landed on Hispaniola in the Caribbean and was motivated by the new spices and gold he found throughout the islands.

  • Columbus led a bigger expedition back to colonize the islands and bring back gold & slaves. Unfortunateyt, due to disease, warfare and demoralization, the Tainosnative population died off.

Chapter 2

South America

Native Art

The spanish in the americas

The Spanish in the Americas

A system of Oppression and Destruction

The spanish in the americas1

The Spanish in the Americas

  • Caste System

  • The Destruction of the Indies

  • Intercontinental Exchange

  • First Europeans in North America

  • The Spanish New World

The spanish in the americas2

The Spanish in the Americas

Hernan Cortes

The spanish in the americas3

The spanish in the Americas

  • Destruction of the Indies- 90% of the native population was reduced by: warfare, low birth rates, famine and diseases.

  • Caste System- A small number of Spanish and their offspring ruled the labor and lives of native people, who were forced to serve them (Spanish)

Intercontinental exchange

Intercontinental Exchange

New to Old

Old to New

  • Precious metals

  • New crops-maize, potatoes

  • Tobacco

  • Chocolate

  • Sugar

  • Rice

  • Livestock- horses

  • Grazing animals

The spanish new world empire

The Spanish New World Empire

  • 16th Century- 250,000 Europeans, mostly Spanish, living in the Americans. 125,000 Africans already enslaved.

  • Treaty of Tordesillas- 1494 agreement that divided the Americas between Spain and Portugal.

  • Europeans often married native women which created a very mixed society.

  • Council of the Indies- A governing body of advisors to the Spanish King who made the laws for the Empire.

The french in the new world

The French in the New World

Fish and Furs

The french in north america

The French in North America

  • In what ways did colonial contact in the Northeast differ from contacts in Mexico and the Caribbean?

  • The relationship between the French and the natives was based on commerce and not conquest. The French wanted furs and fish not land, slaves or natural resources.

The french in north america1

The French in North America

  • The Fur Trade

  • Fur traders were critical to New France’s success.

  • Indians were active participants.

  • In the early 17th century, the French attempted to monopolize the trade.

Fish and furs

fish and Furs

  • Due to an growing population in Europe and depleting food source, the prices of furs skyrocketed. There was a great demand for furs, especially beaver.

  • Most French in the colonies lived near the Great Lakes and the upper regions of the US (today) and Canada. The climate and soil was not conducive to farming or slaves.

  • Eventually, warfare broke out over hunting grounds.

  • 17th century- the French had a monopoly of the fur trade and had set up trade posts and villages along the St. Lawrence River.

  • Fur trade was clearly in favor of the French.

Protestant reformation the huguenots

Protestant Reformation & the huguenots

  • Protestant Reformation- Revolt against the Catholic Church led by Martin Luther.

  • French protestors were called Huguenots and tried to overthrow the French king. When they failed, they were forced to leave and settled in the Americas (near South Carolina.)

The huguenots

The Huguenots

  • Threatened the Spanish who had control of Florida and the region. Attacked by the Spanish and caused the Spanish to build St. Augustine, a fort in Jacksonville.

Fish and furs1

Fish and Furs

  • However, the spirit of the Huguenots and the success of the fur traders and fishermen urged more French to settle the Americas.

  • Today, Quebec is still a predomenately French province.

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