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Using the 11 Principles of Effective Character Education to Start, Strengthen, & Assess Your Program. Region 10 - Project Character School Leadership Team Workshop April 3, 2004 Matthew L. Davidson, Ph.D Research Director Center for the 4 th & 5 th Rs (Respect & Responsibility)

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Using the 11 principles of effective character education to start strengthen assess your program l.jpg

Using the 11 Principles of Effective Character Education to Start, Strengthen, & Assess Your Program

Region 10 - Project Character

School Leadership Team Workshop

April 3, 2004

Matthew L. Davidson, Ph.D

Research Director

Center for the 4th & 5th Rs (Respect & Responsibility)

[email protected]

607-753-5798


1 minute ice breaker l.jpg
1-Minute Ice-Breaker

  • Turn to a neighbor sitting near you and say hello (if possible, introduce yourself to someone you don’t already know or get the chance to talk to very often).

  • Each person should share 1 piece of good news and 1 thing you’re looking forward to in your life.


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Eleven Principles of Effective Character EducationFrom: The Character Education Partnership

  1. Character education promotes core ethical values as the

basis of good character.

 2. ‘Character’ must be comprehensively defined to include

thinking, feeling, and behavior.

3. Effective character education requires an intentional,

proactive, and comprehensive approach that promotes the core

values in all phases of school life.

4. The school must be a caring community.

5. To develop character, students need opportunities for moral

action.


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 6. Effective character education includes a meaningful and challenging academic curriculum that respects all learners and helps them succeed.

 7. Character education should strive to develop students’ intrinsic motivation.

 8. The school staff must become a learning and moral community in which all share responsibility for character education and attempt to adhere to the same core values that guide the education of the students.

 9. Character education requires moral leadership from both staff and students.

 10. The school must recruit parents and community members as full partners in the character-building effort.

 11. Evaluation of character education should assess the character of the school, the school staff’s functioning as character educators, and the extent to which students manifest good character. 


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What, exactly, is character? challenging academic curriculum that respects all learners and helps them succeed.

  • From its Greek origins, the word “character” literally translates as, “enduring, lasting, or distinguishing mark.”

  • Values are how we describe the enduring mark of individuals and communities.

  • Character might best be defined as, “values in action.”


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Smart versus good: challenging academic curriculum that respects all learners and helps them succeed. “Two great goals” set against each other

“Character education is not a new idea. It is,

in fact, as old as education itself. Down through

history, in countries all over the world, education

has had two great goals: to help young people

become smartandto help them become good.”

—Tom Lickona, Educating for Character


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Performance & Moral Character challenging academic curriculum that respects all learners and helps them succeed.

  • Performance Character:

    • The knowledge, habits, & dispositions necessary for achieving human excellence in performance environments—in school, extracurricular activities, & in our work.

  • Moral Character:

    • The cognitive, emotional, & behavioral dispositions necessary for ethical functioning. The character that moderates our personal goals with the interests of those outside of ourselves, and with shared moral values such as justice & caring, respect & responsibility, honesty & integrity.


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  • “To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society.”

    —Theodore Roosevelt

  • “The good-to-great companies placed greater weight on character attributes than on specific educational background, practical skills, specialized knowledge, or work experience. Not that specific knowledge or skills are unimportant, but they viewed these traits as more teachable (or at least learnable), whereas they believed dimensions like character, work ethic, basic intelligence, dedication to fulfilling commitments, and values are more ingrained.”

    —Jim Collins, (2001), Good to Great


How many lies do you have to tell before you are a liar m josephson l.jpg
“How many lies do you have to tell before you are a liar?”—M. Josephson

  • For students (and adults, too), moral identity is frequently preserved by bracketing off or compartmentalizing their “moral self.”

  • We do a good job cultivating identities like, “athlete” and “scholar,” “artist,” but pay little attention to cultivating moral identity.


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Why the two-dimensional liar?”character distinction?

  • It acknowledges moral dimension of human excellence or achievement, AND establishes a role for character in the realization of human excellence or achievement.

  • It reserves a legitimate place for moral excellence in our quest for human excellence.

  • “If character counts, then show me what it will do for my GPA” —Chicago area High school student.


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Performance, Talent & liar?”Performance Character

  • Performance is the outcome (the grade, the honor or award, the achievement); performance character are psychological processes that help you pursue your personalbest—whether the outcome is realized or not (work ethic, courage, self-discipline, etc.)

    • It’s possible to achieve performance and not have performance character.

  • Talent is the natural ability you are born with (intellectually, artistically, physically, morally etc.); Character development is the process by which you challenge yourself to get the most from your talent.


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How is Character Developed? liar?”

  • Character is like a muscular system—not just one muscle– that must be exercised in order to develop.

    • Can muscles be taught? Yes.

    • Can muscles develop “memory” or habits? Yes.

    • Can muscles atrophy? Yes, if they are not used

  • Muscles have different potential, but all can be developed—just how much and for how long is what most want to know.


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What kind of values? liar?”

  • Performance Values:

    • Are “willing values” required for success in performance environments.

    • E.g., perseverance, courage, hard work, optimism, self-control, discipline, orderliness.

  • Moral Values:

    • Are values that carry obligation.

    • Are universal (universalizable)—we would will all persons act according to them.

    • Are reversible—we would want to be treated this way.

    • E.g., Respect, responsibility, justice, kindness.


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Values and the Sun liar?”

  • Like the sun, we can’t grasp values in their entirety.

  • Values have infinite particulars based on developmental level, environmental context, and the value itself.

  • Remember to teach in layers not lumps!



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Westmoor Elementary Skills liar?”

  • Apologizing (grades 2/3)

  • Accepting Consequences (grades 1/2/5)

  • Asking for Help (grades K/1/2/3/4)

  • Using Brave Talk (grades 1/3 )

  • Dealing with an Accusation (grade 2)

  • Dealing with Disappointment (grades 3/5)

  • Giving and Accepting Compliments (grades 2/3)

  • Ignoring (grades 1/2/3)

  • Interrupting (grades K/1/2/3)

  • Knowing When to Tell (grades 1/3)



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Jeff Beedy: “Leader to Detractor Scale” liar?”

5 Leader: understands role as a contributing team member; actively models the value.

4 Contributor: understands role as a member of team & seeks opportunities to display teamwork.

3 Participant: understands role as a member of team, but displays little proactive teamwork.

2 Observer: engages in teamwork only when directed & to promote self-interests.

1 Detractor: Detracts from team. No regard for teammates.


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1-Minute Buzz Break liar?”

  • In groups of 2-4 people list the performance values and moral values that are critical for your kids.

  • Take at least one value and attempt to break it down into the specific knowledge and skills required for putting this value into action.


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Principle 6 liar?”

“Effective character education includes

a meaningful and challenging academic

curriculum that respects all learners and

helps them succeed.”


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Character must be taught through the curriculum! liar?”

  • Through the curriculum—formal, informal, & hidden. Make the implicit, explicit.

  • Through diverse opportunities to help students develop performance and moral character.

  • Through direct instruction and through discussions of emerging teachable moral moments. Take a stand—it is essential for student development!

  • Through classroom and school-wide discipline that is fair, consistent, and co-created.


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The Heartwood Curriculum liar?”

  • The Heartwood Institute creates ethics curricula for children from preschool to grade six.

  • Based on good multicultural children's literature, the curricula are designed to introduce a language of ethics and to foster literacy, good judgment and moral imagination.

  • Read aloud stories, discussions and activities promote understanding of the universal attributes:


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The Heartwood Institute liar?”

425 North Craig Street  Suite 302 

Pittsburgh, PA 15213 

412-688-8570 

1-800-HEART-10 

[email protected]

http://www.heartwoodethics.org


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"Cinderella," by Charles Perrault liar?”

"Cinderella," by the Brothers Grimm

"The City of Trembling Leaves," by Walter van Tilburn Clark

"Sixteen," by Maureen Daly

"What Means Switch," by Gish Gen

"The Makeover of Meredith Kaplan," by Barbara Girion

"Sonnet 130," by William Shakespeare

"Love Poem," by John Frederick Nims

"Too Early Spring," by Stephen Vincent Benet

“The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter,” (excerpt) by Carson McCullers

"Up on Fong Mountain," by Norma Fox Mazer

"Houseparty," by Walter Bernstein

The Art of Loving WellTable of Contents


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The Loving Well Project liar?”

Nancy McLaren, Project Director

School of Education, Boston University

605 Commonwealth Ave.

Boston, MA 02215

Phone: 617/353-4088

Fax: 617/353-2909

http://www.bu.edu/education/lovingwell/index.html


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“Facing History & Ourselves” liar?”Examining History and Human Behavior

  • Foundational beliefs:

    • Democratic education must be an “apprenticeship in liberty.”

    • History is a moral enterprise.

    • Teaching is a craft.

    • Adolescents are our future.

  • Since 1976 more than 17, 000 educators have participated in Facing History workshops and institutes

  • An estimated 1, 500, 000 students are reached each year.



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Columbine Elementary School liar?”Personal & Social Responsibility Standards

  • Practices organizational skills…

  • Supports and interacts positively with others…

  • Takes risks and accepts challenges…

  • Accepts responsibility for behavior…

  • Listens attentively, follows directions, stays on task…

  • Evaluates own learning…

    A = Advanced B = Basic

    I = In progress P = Proficient


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  • Math liar?”

    • Tries a variety of strategies to solve a problem…

    • Exhibits a knowledge of basic math facts…

    • Shows effort…

  • Social Studies

    • Participates in discussion…

    • Understands concepts…

    • Completes projects & assignments…

    • Shows effort…

  • Science

    • Works cooperatively in groups…

    • Understands concepts…

    • Completes assignments & experiments…

    • Shows effort…


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Mr. Shoeneck’s liar?”Standards of Excellence

  • I will honor commitments.

  • I will only make statements that add value and stick to the purpose at hand.

  • I will come to meetings prepared and determined to contribute.

  • I will offer alternative proposals to those things with which I disagree.


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5. I will avoid working in isolation and will seek the thinking of others.

6. I will not be limited by current boundaries and limitations.

7. I will look for “How Can We” rather than “Why We Can’t.”

8. I will focus on helping others toward their purpose through listening and sharing of thoughts.


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Reflecting on Character thinking of others.Monte Pointe HS, (Phoenix, AZ)

  • Is character important for public figures, or are skills and performance all that matter?

    2. Write about the character of a person you greatly admire. How has that person’s character affected you?

    3. As a society, have we lost sight of the qualities that constitute character?


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1-Minute Buzz Break depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?

  • With a colleague from your grade-level or content area, brainstorm two character in the curriculum connections—one performance character and one moral character—using the “character in the curriculum” activity sheet.


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Why Be Good? depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?

  • This all important question has many different answers—reward, recognition, punishment, disproval, cultural influence.

  • Motivation is the bridge between what we know and what we do.

  • What’s the motivation for elementary-age students? For middle and high school students?


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Principle 7 depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?

“Character education should strive to

develop students’self-motivation.”


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Character Education is an inside job! depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?

  • Character education must develop self-motivation, students who “Do what is right, even if nobody is looking.”

    • Competence in reaching those goals must be internally referenced, monitored, pursued.

  • When it comes to promoting self-motivated individuals:

    • Tangible extrinsic rewards used primarily for controlling people’s behavior tend to undermine intrinsic motivation AND self-regulation.

    • Extrinsic rewards are less detrimental if they are not used contingently and if the social context is oriented more towards support than control.

    • Verbal rewards that convey information or feedback that affirms people’s competence tend to maintain or enhance intrinsic motivation.


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Do you have outies or innies? depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?

  • Do your students worry only about the final outcome?

  • Do your students have a helpless response to success or failure?

  • Can they make sense of an outcome and create a better plan for the future?


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Outies, Innies, What’s The Difference depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?

  • Outer-focused individuals experience:

    • Increased performance anxiety.

    • Helpless response to success & failure

      • Q: “How did this happen?” A: “I don’t know”

    • Less personal enjoyment or satisfaction from the activity.

  • Inner-focused individuals experience:

    • Increased self-reflection and self-awareness.

    • Strong intrinsic motivation.

    • A healthy approach to competition, with less performance & moral character “clashes.”

    • Are Less likely to engage in “gaming strategies.”


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Developing the Complete Moral Person—Head, Heart, and Hand depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?

  • Developing “Innies” interconnects head, heart, and hand:

    • Through careful individual planning, self-assessment, and skill development.

    • Through a balance of community support & challenge for individual strengths and weaknesses.

    • By providing a sense of control over our behavior.

    • Empowering students to understand, monitor, and change their behaviors.


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1. Temperance 8. Silence depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?

2. Order 9. Resolution

3. Frugality 10. Industry

4. Sincerity 11. Justice

5. Moderation 12. Cleanliness

6. Tranquility 13. Chastity

7. Humility

Benjamin Franklin’s Virtues


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Character Record Book depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?

  • How have I shown respect today?

  • How have I failed to show respect today?

  • How will I show respect tomorrow?

    —Franklin Classical Charter School


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Got Goals? depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?

Directions: In the three columns below list at least 5 goals

for each category. When you have listed at least 5 goals for

each category, circle your top 3 goals and rank them by

order of importance.

AcademicExtra-CurricularCharacter

For each of your goals from each category above, list

potential assistance you will need (from friends, coaches,

teachers, etc.) to help you reach your goals.


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100 Goals depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?

  • Write at least 100 goals.

  • Divide them into categories.

    • E.g., education, career, fun/adventure, spiritual, travel, reading, learning, etc.

  • Select the 10 most important goals.

  • Write a paragraph explaining the importance of your #1 goal.

    —Hal Urban, Teacher, Redwood City, CA


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Trouble Card depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?

How to avoid trouble and make a good decision:

  • Is this something that would be considered wrong by my parents, teachers, or religion?

  • Does it go against my conscience?

  • Will it have bad consequences, now or in the future?

  • Will I feel sorry after doing it?

  • Will it cause me to lose self-respect?

    (adapted from Phyllis Smith-Hansen, Lansing Middle School)


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Essential Character Activity depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?

  • What is one thing you could do to improve your school’s approach to recognizing and celebrating good character?

  • Take one of your school’s values and create an innie-promoting, self-monitoring tool for students.


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Principle 8 depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?

“The school staff must become a learning

& moral community in which all share

responsibility for character education &

attempt to adhere to the same core values

that guide the education of the students.”


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“You must be the change you wish to see in the world” depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?

  • Character educators need not be perfect—thankfully!

    • They must be committed—to a process of ongoing growth and development.

  • Effective character education requires TIME & DIALOGUE.

  • E.g., Lansing Mission Statement Survey.


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The People, The Process, & Priming The Pump depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?

  • The People involved in planning, implementing, and modeling the shared values of the community.

  • The Processes for reflecting on consistency and effectiveness in realizing character goals—personal and collective.

  • Priming the Pump by providing the time and training required for ongoing personal development and program improvement.


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“The Stories We Tell Ourselves” depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?

  • In Professional Learning Communities at Work, DuFour and Eaker (1998) argue, “cultures are defined by the stories we tell ourselves.” These stories:

    • Help clarify our values

    • Reveal our view of the world

    • Reinforce our interpretation of events

    • Instruct us on appropriate conduct

    • Identify heroes and villains

  • Data offer us an opportunity to tell a story.

    • The story of “our data” and how we interpret it is essential to our growth & development.


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Story Lines That Won’t Lead to depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?Growth & Development…

  • “We don’t care what a few people say, everybody knows this is a good place.”

  • “By the time that get to high school, it’s too late for character education.”

  • “I don’t have the time for character education.”

  • “There must be a program or person that is supposed to be doing this.”

  • “Between the lack of parent involvement and the media, there’s not much we can do.”


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Mission-Driven Schools & Classrooms depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?

  • Individual identity is developed at least in part through participation in communities with a clear and cohesive institutional identity—not a class, a way of life.

  • Exemplary schools of character are mission-driven schools that provide students with a clear sense of what it means to be a member of this community.

    • “The Roosevelt Way”

    • “The Souhegan Six”


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“The Souhegan Six” depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?Souhegan HS, New Hampshire

  • Respect and encourage the right to teach and the right to learn at all times.

  • Be actively engaged in the learning; ask questions, collaborate, and seek solutions.

  • Be on time to fulfill your daily commitments.

  • Be appropriate; demonstrate behavior that is considerate of the community, the campus, and yourself.

  • Be truthful; communicate honestly.

  • Be responsible and accountable for your choices.


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Fenway High School Motto depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?

Work Hard.

Be Yourself.

Do the Right Thing.


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St. Benedict’s Prep depend on cultural setting and individual viewpoint?

“Whatever hurts my brother, hurts me.”


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Research by Kathryn Wentzel on Middle School Teachers Indicates That

  • Teachers who do the following…

    • Have high expectations for students

    • Avoid negative feedback and are nurturing

    • Are fair and use democratic forms of communication

    • Cultivate motivation for learning and school

    • Set clear rules

  • Have students who…

    • Possess prosocial and achievement motivation

    • Have a sense of personal mastery and control

    • Engage in more prosocial and less irresponsible behavior

    • Get higher grades in school


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Responsibility, Efficacy, & The Character Educator’s Challenge

  • In general, educators report a very high sense of responsibility for character education.

  • However, this is juxtaposed by very low self reports of efficacy in doing character education.

  • Nevertheless, character educators tend to overestimate the frequency, quality, and impact of their character education efforts.

  • Herein lies the challenge: to develop educators who feel responsible and capable for CE, and who regularly utilize multiple and diverse methods for reflecting on their actual effectiveness.


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Practice what you preach, but don’t forget to preach what you practice!

  • Adults need to increase their character education practices. They also need to “Preach what they practice” so that the youth experience is caught and taught.

  • Making your “Truth Signs” chronically accessible

    • “We only learn from our mistakes if we have the courage to make them.”

    • “Any job worth doing is worth doing well.”

    • “There are no failures, just disappointments when you have done your best.”—John Wooden


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The Intangibles of Best Practice you practice!

  • Frequently, inadequate implementation of character education is NOT from lack of interest or commitment, but instead a need for:

    • More time

    • More training

    • More or better curricular resources

    • Organizational assistance

    • Changes in scheduling

    • Etc.


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1-Minute Buzz Break you practice!

  • In your grade-level groups, work in pairs to complete the activity, “Teachers as Role-Models Activity”

  • Share out with the group.


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Principle 9 you practice!

“Character education requires moral

leadership from both staff and students.”


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Authentic Involvement you practice!

  • Character education is something we do with students—not to them.

  • Students can drive the program if they are given the responsibility and the required skills.

    • Problem-focused advisory group, discipline committee, cross-age mentoring, etc

    • E.g., St. Leonard Elementary School “Kid’s Character Committee”, Lansing Middle school language survey, MKA honor code, Souhegan High School student government.


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  • People try to get others to follow the rules.

  • When children see someone being picked on, they try to stop it.

  • People do not care if others cheat.



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The Giraffe Process threats.

  • Hear The Story

    • Learn from the Giraffe story-bank of real heroes and heroines

  • Tell The Story

    • Look for giraffe’s in your community and share their story

  • Be The Story

    • Stick your neck out for worthy causes that need your help


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Sample Giraffe Story threats.

  • As an eighth-grader, Sarah Swagart decided it was wrong for young skateboarders to be treated like criminals, threatened with fines of as much as $500 and 90 days in jail.

  • Not a skateboarder herself, she could see that the kids might be annoying, but they definitely were not criminals.

  • She formed “Nobody Special,” an organization whose mission is to get the skateboarders a place—and to get the community to see them as athletes, not hoodlums.

  • She got commitment from the SeaBees at Whidbey Naval Air Station to do the construction; businesses donated materials; and they’re on the sidewalks raising “a mile of money”—26,400 dollar bills.


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Compelling Giraffe Statistics threats.

  • The number who thought nothing could be done to solve community problems dropped by 55%

  • The number who agreed that they should help solve such problems went up by 27%

  • Those who chose celebrities as heroes dropped by 50%


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1-Minute Buzz Break threats.

  • As a grade-level group, make three columns on a piece of scrap paper (assign a group recorder to capture the thoughts of the group) . In the first column list ways that students are currently involved in authentic leadership for your character education program. In the second column list additional ways students could be more authentically involved. In the third column, list any between-building leadership opportunities for your students (e.g., Middle-Elem, HS-Middle, etc.).


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Principle 10 threats.

“The school must recruit parents and

community members as full partners in

the character-building effort.”


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Parents Need Help Walking the Performance/Moral Character Tightrope

  • Developing both performance and moral character requires their help.

  • Education is needed for both!


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“A lot Easier Said than Done” Tightrope

  • A report focusing on the difficulty of raising children of integrity and character in America today.

  • In general, the report indicates a majority of parents reporting they believe character development outcomes are essential, but also believe they are doing an inadequate job in their own character development efforts.


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10 Priorities from… Tightrope“The Biggest Job We’ll Ever Have”(Laura & Malcolm Gauld 2002)

  • Truth over harmony

  • Principles over rules

  • Attitude over aptitude

  • Set high expectations and let go of outcomes

  • Value success and failure

  • Allow obstacles to become opportunities

  • Take hold and let go

  • Create a character culture

  • Humility to ask for and accept health

  • Inspiration: Job 1


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Principle 11 Tightrope

“Evaluation of character education should

assess the character of the school, the

school staff’s functioning as character

educators, & the extent to which students manifest good character.” 


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Reflective Practitioning in the Character Education Cycle Tightrope

  • Effective character education is a dynamic, cyclical, ongoing, never ending process of attempting to create “zones of optimal character development” that challenge and engage.


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The Steps of Reflective Practice Tightrope

  • Brainstorm

  • Organize

  • Prioritize

  • Plan

  • Implement

  • Reflect

  • Begin again


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The Key to Effective Program Planning and Evaluation Tightrope

  • We must be able to define our constructs if we hope to:

    • Effectively reach our educational objective

    • Effectively measure our progress


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The Responsive Classroom TightropeProgram Components

  • Classroom organization

    • Provides for active interest areas for students, space for student-created displays of work and an appropriate mix of whole class and individual instruction

  • A morning meeting format

    • Provides children the daily opportunity to practice greetings, conversation, sharing and problem solving

  • Rules and logical consequences

    • Generated, modeled and role-played with the children that become the cornerstone of classroom life.


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  • Academic choice time for all children Tightrope

    • Provides them with the necessity of taking control of their own learning in some meaningful way, both individually and cooperatively

  • Guided discovery of learning materials, areas of the room, curriculum content and ways of behaving

    • Moves children through a deliberate and careful introduction to each new experience

  • Assessment and reporting to parents

    • An evolving process of mutual communication and understanding


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Using Data to Drive Practice Tightrope

  • Coaches Checklist

  • School as a Caring Community Profile-II (SCCP-II)

  • Character Education Quality Standards: A self-assessment Tool for Schools and Districts

  • Global Portraits of Social and Moral Health

  • ITCSQ


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Sample Reflection Tools Tightrope

  • Journal Reflections

    • Create a personal mission statement.

  • Verbal feedback using a whip

    • “I liked, next time we might”

  • Sentence completion tests (3X5 cards)

    • “One specific way I show respect is…”

  • Interviews

    • Teacher-student, student-student, student-community member

  • Observations

    • Cafeteria, extracurriculars, bus, etc.


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Lansing Middle School TightropeFocus Group

  • One specific behavior that indicates a lack of character is…

  • This behavior indicates a need to develop what value or skill…



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How might your students answer the following questions? Tightrope

  • When students see another student being mean, they try to stop it.

  • Students try to comfort a peer who has experienced sadness.

  • Students help new students feel accepted.

  • Students help each other, even if they are not friends.

  • Students can talk to their teachers about problems that are bothering them.


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Reflective practice: a process of constantly righting the flight

  • We must constantly bootstrap between our ideal path and our current reality.

  • We must make in flight corrections or risk arriving at the wrong, or unplanned destination—or worse.


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I laughed, I cried, I decided to try.. flight

  • Following today’s discussion, write down 1 or 2 specific things you plan to utilize within your sphere of influence to develop performance & moral character.

  • Challenge yourself to begin by finding 30 total minutes per week devoted to developing performance & moral character (monitor by keeping a record).

  • Challenge yourself as a professional & ethical learning community to find 30 minutes every 2 weeks where you share, reflect upon, & refocus your efforts.


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