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Mammalian Reproduction II Estrous cycles, Gestation, & Lactation. EEOB 625 6 February 2004. Questions in Mammalian Reproduction II. Estrous cycle and menstrual cycle : Is the difference in the name?

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Mammalian reproduction ii estrous cycles gestation lactation

Mammalian ReproductionIIEstrous cycles, Gestation, & Lactation

EEOB 625

6 February 2004


Questions in mammalian reproduction ii
Questions in Mammalian Reproduction II

  • Estrous cycle and menstrual cycle:

    Is the difference in the name?

  • Are the physiological, morphological, or behavioral changes different in the two types?

  • Induced vs. Spontaneous ovulation: What is same and what is different about LH?


The estrous cycle and gestation in mammals 1
The Estrous Cycle and Gestation in Mammals 1

Estrous cycle is a series of recurring physiological, morphological, and behavioral changes in the female, marked by estrus and ovulation.

  • A matrix of glands, hormones, and time

    1) Hypothalamus – GnRH, 2) Anterior pituitary - FSH & LH, 3) Ovary – estrogen & progesterone, 4) uterus

    Cascade of hormonal effects: GnRH FSH & LH estrogen & progesterone uterine tissues


Hypothalamus

Pituitary

Ovary

Uterus

H-P-G Axis

Fig. 9.6, Feldhamer


The estrous cycle and gestation in mammals 2
The Estrous Cycle and Gestation in Mammals: 2

  • Ovary: follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase

  • Uterus: proliferative phase and secretory phase

  • Hormonal control of follicular development, estrus, ovulation, and secretion of progesterone

  • Signals for estrous & ovulation: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

    Positive feedback of estradiol on LH releaseLH surge

  • LH surge stimulates ovulation. Meiosis I in the oocyte is completed at this time

  • The process of ovulation: rupture of the follicle wall

  • Spontaneous & Induced (e.g. cats)ovulators compared


Questions in mammalian reproduction ii1
Questions in Mammalian Reproduction II

  • Estrous cycle and menstrual cycle:

    Is the difference in the name?

  • Are the physiological, morphological, or behavioral changes different in the two types?

  • Induced vs. Spontaneous ovulation: What is same and what is different about LH?


The estrous cycle and gestation in mammals 3
The Estrous Cycle and Gestation in Mammals 3

Corpusluteum from granulosa cells of ruptured follicle

Conception: Union of pronuclei (gametes) in oviduct

Implantation of the blastocyst & development of placenta

  • Four extraembryonic membranes of amniotes

    - Function of each in oviparous species

    - Vitelline (yolk sac) membrane and allantois in

    metatherians and eutherians


The placenta and gestation 4
The Placenta and Gestation - 4

  • Ovulation, Fertilization, and Oviductal transport of the embryo

  • Hormonal (E, LH, & P) control of events

  • Eutherian Implantation: Chorioallantoic placenta and uterine epithelium (Figs 9.11, 9.12)

  • Placenta

  • Choriovitelline placenta of metatherians

  • Delayed fertilization & delayed implantation?


The placenta and gestation
The Placenta and Gestation

  • Ovulation, Fertilization, and Oviductal transport of the embryo

  • Hormonal (E, LH, & P) control of events

  • Eutherian Implantation: Chorioallantoic placenta and uterine epithelium (Figs 9.11, 9.12)

  • Placenta






Questions in mammalian reproduction iii
Questions in Mammalian Reproduction III

  • Origin of the mammary gland: What’s a brood patch (or sweat) got to do with it?

  • Why is lactation dependent upon suckling?

  • Milk is milk: How different can it be?


Mammary gland lactation
Mammary Gland & Lactation

  • Origin & evolution: derived sweat glands?

  • Nutritive secretions in other taxa: ___, ____

  • Original (pre-mammary) function ?

  • Origin of the mammary gland: What’s a brood patch (or sweat) got to do with it?

  • Epidermal secrections: first source of

    1) moisture for the neonate?

    2) source of nutrition?

    3) or something else? __________________


Mammary gland lactation1
Mammary Gland & Lactation

  • Origin & evolution: derived sweat glands?

  • Nutritive secretions in other taxa: ___, ____

  • Original (pre-mammary) function ?

  • Epidermal secrections: first source of

    1) moisture for the neonate?

    2) source of nutrition?

    3) or something else? __________________

  • Histology, internal anatomy, & hormones


Mammary gland lactation2
Mammary Gland & Lactation

  • Origin & evolution: derived sweat glands?

  • Nutritive secretions in other taxa: ___, ____

  • Original function: water, nutrition, or _____

  • Location & Morphology: udder, teat, & nipple

  • Histology & internal anatomy (handout)

  • Hormones ‑ Somatotropin, P, & E during development


Physiology of lactation and the nature of milk
Physiology of Lactation and the Nature of Milk

  • Prolactin: a hormone of maternal care

  • Synthesis of milk: Prolactin & lactiferous cells

    Secondary effect on ovarian activity (anestrus)

  • Delivery of milk: oxytocin & myoepithelial cell


Physiology of lactation and the nature of milk1
Physiology of Lactation and the Nature of Milk

  • Prolactin: a hormone of maternal care

  • Synthesis of milk: Prolactin & lactiferous cells

    Secondary effect on ovarian activity (anestrus)

  • Delivery of milk: oxytocin & myoepithelial cell

  • Components of milk: Casein, lactose & lipids

  • Taxonomic variation in fat content of milk

  • Change of content during the period of lactation



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