Commercialization & Food Security Outcomes: chi-square Test. Source: Babu and Sanyal (2009). Commercialization.
Source: Babu and Sanyal (2009)
1. cash crops contribute to livelihood diversification and improve food and nutrition security by directly increasing the farm household’s income earning potential which, in turn, increases the household’s spending potential.
2. Most cash crops tend to be labor intensive, cash cropping entails a substantial expansion of the demand for hired labor. This employment effect for households that hire out labor may represent significant livelihood improvement
3. Introduction of cash crops contributes to the development of rural financial markets, which partially relieves the cash constraints.
4. Cash cropping opportunities are also accompanied by improved technology.
1. Missing Factor Markets and hence limited scope for uniform spread of income and employment benefits of commercialization across households
2. Weak financial markets for expenditure and consumption smoothing.
1. Household consumption expenditure allocation between food and non-food (mainly health and sanitation).
2. Allocation of food expenditure among the various types and quantities of foods.
3. Distribution of food and other consumption items among household members.
4. Gender allocation of time, labor and control of income.
1) f(dependency ratio, number of meals)
2) Per adult equivalent calorie intake (CALADEQ)
1. Exclude Z-scores with absolute values ≶ 5 (outliers)
2. two categories for three indicators of malnutrition are: (i) Z-score <-2 and (ii) Z-score ≥2
Food Security Measure: Calorie adequacy
Food Security Measure: Dependency ratio & number of meals
Nutrition Measures: Anthropometric Indicators