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STANDARD VUS.5. Daniel Shay. The student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues involved in the creation and ratification of the Constitution of the United States and how the principles of limited government, consent of the governed, and the social contract are embodied in it by

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STANDARD VUS.5

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Standard vus 5

STANDARD VUS.5

Daniel Shay

Lee Anderson 2010


Standard vus 5

  • The student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues involved in the creation and ratification of the Constitution of the United States and how the

  • principles of limited government, consent of the governed, and the social contract are embodied in it by

    • a) explaining the origins of the Constitution, including the Articles of Confederation.

    • b) identifying the major compromises necessary to produce the Constitution, and the roles of James Madison and George Washington.

    • c) examining the significance of the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom in the framing of the Bill of Rights.

    • d) assessing the arguments of Federalists and Anti-Federalists during the ratification debates and their relevance to political debate today.

    • e) appraising how John Marshall’s precedent-setting decisions established the Supreme Court as an independent and equal branch of the national government.

Lee Anderson 2010


Standard vus 5a

STANDARD VUS.5a

  • American political leaders, fearful of a powerful central government like Britain’s, created the Articles of Confederation, adopted at the end of the war.

Lee Anderson 2010


Standard vus 5a1

STANDARD VUS.5a

  • The Articles of Confederation

    • Provided for a weak national government

    • Gave Congress no power to tax or regulate commerce among the states

    • Provided for no common currency

    • Gave each state one vote regardless of size

    • Provided for no executive or judicial branch

Lee Anderson 2010


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Lee Anderson 2010


Essential understandings

Essential Understandings

  • During the Constitutional Era, the Americans made two attempts to establish a workable government based on republican principles.

Lee Anderson 2010


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STANDARD VUS.5b

  • Key issues and their resolutions

    • Made federal law the supreme law of the land when

      constitutional, but otherwise gave the states considerable

      leeway to govern themselves

      • Balanced power between large and small states by creating

      a Senate, where each state has two senators, and a House

      of Representatives, where membership is based on

      Population

      • Placated the Southern states by counting slaves as three-fifths of the population when determining representation in the United States House of Representatives

Lee Anderson 2010


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STANDARD VUS.5b

  • Key issues and their resolutions

    • Avoided a too-powerful central government by

      establishing three co-equal branches—legislative,

      executive, and judicial—with numerous checks and

      balances among them

      • Limited the powers of the federal government to those identified in the Constitution

Lee Anderson 2010


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STANDARD VUS.5b

  • Key leaders

  • George Washington, president of the Convention

    – Washington presided at the Convention and, although seldom participating in the debates, lent his enormous prestige to the proceedings.

    • James Madison, “Father of the Constitution”

    – Madison, a Virginian and a brilliant political philosopher, often led the debate and kept copious notes of the proceedings—the best record historians have of what transpired at the Constitutional Convention.

    • At the Convention, he authored the “Virginia Plan,”

      which proposed a federal government of three separate

      branches (legislative, executive, judicial) and became

      the foundation for the structure of the new government.

    • He later authored much of the Bill of Rights

Lee Anderson 2010


Essential understandings1

Essential Understandings

  • The Constitution of the United States established a government that shared power between the national government and state governments, protected the rights of states, and provided a system for orderly change through amendments to the Constitution

    itself.

Lee Anderson 2010


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STANDARD VUS.5c

  • Virginia Declaration of Rights (George Mason)

    • Reiterated the notion that basic human rights should not be violated by governments

  • Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (Thomas Jefferson)

    • Outlawed the established church— that is, the practice of government support for one favored church

  • Bill of Rights

    • James Madison consulted the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom when drafting the

    amendments that eventually became the United States Bill of Rights.

Lee Anderson 2010


Essential understandings2

Essential Understandings

  • The major principles of the Bill of Rights of the Constitution were based on earlier Virginia statutes.

Lee Anderson 2010


Standard vus 5d

STANDARD VUS.5d

  • Federalists advocated the importance of

    a strong central government, especially

    to promote economic development and

    public improvements. Today, those who

    see a primary role for the federal

    government in solving national problems are heirs to this tradition.

Lee Anderson 2010


Standard vus 5d1

STANDARD VUS.5d

  • Anti-Federalists feared an overly

    powerful central government destructive

    of the rights of individuals and the

    prerogatives of the states. Today, the

    more conservative thinkers echo these

    concerns and champion liberty,

    individual initiative, and free markets.

Lee Anderson 2010


Standard vus 5d2

STANDARD VUS.5d

The leading Virginia opponents of

ratification were Patrick Henry and

George Mason; the leading Virginia

proponents of ratification were George

Washington and James Madison.

Patrick Henry

Lee Anderson 2010


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Lee Anderson 2010


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Lee Anderson 2010


Essential understandings3

Essential Understandings

  • Elements of Federalist and Anti- Federalist thought are reflected in contemporary political debate on issues such as the size and role of government, federalism, and the protection of individual rights.

Lee Anderson 2010


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STANDARD VUS.5e

The doctrine of judicial review set forth in Marbury v. Madison, the doctrine of implied powers set forth in McCulloch v. Maryland, and a broadly national view of economic affairs set forth in Gibbons v. Ogdenare the foundation blocks of the Supreme Court’s authority to mediate disagreements between branches of governments, levels of government, and competing business interests.

Lee Anderson 2010


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Marbury v. Madison- 1803- Judicial review

McCulloch v. Maryland- 1819- “the power to tax is the power to destroy’

Gibbons v. Ogden- 1824- held that the power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to congress by the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution. The case was argued by some of America's most admired and capable attorneys at the time. Exiled Irish patriot Thomas Addis Emmet and Thomas J. Oakley argued for Ogden, while William Wirt and Daniel Webster argued for Gibbons.

Lee Anderson 2010


Essential understandings4

Essential Understandings

  • Important legal precedents established

    by the Marshall Court strengthened the

    role of the United States Supreme Court

    as an equal branch of the national

    government.

Lee Anderson 2010


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How did America’s pre-Revolutionary

relationship with Britain influence the

structure of the first national

government?

What weaknesses in the Articles of

Confederation led to the effort to draft a

new constitution?

How did the delegates to the Constitutional Convention balance competing interests?

What compromises were reached at the Constitutional Convention?

STANDARD

VUS.5

The creation and ratification of the Constitution

How was the Bill of Rights influenced

by the Virginia Declaration of Rights

and the Virginia Statute for Religious

Freedom?

Who were the leading Federalists and

Anti-Federalists in the pivotal

ratification debate in Virginia?

What were the major arguments for and against the Constitution of 1787 in the leading Federalist and Anti-Federalist writings and in the ratification debates?

How did Chief Justice John Marshall, a

Virginian, contribute to the growth of

the United States Supreme Court’s

importance in relation to the other

branches of the national government?

Lee Anderson 2010


Standard vus 5

STANDARD VUS.5a The student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues involved in the creation and ratification of the Constitution of the United States of America and how the principles of limited government, consent of the governed, and the social contract are embodied in it bya) explaining the origins of the Constitution, including the Articles of Confederation.

Lee Anderson 2010


Standard vus 5

STANDARD VUS.5b The student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues involved in the creation and ratification of the Constitution of the United States of America and how the principles of limited government, consent of the governed, and the social contract are embodied in it byb)identifying the major compromises necessary to produce the Constitution, and the roles of James Madison and George Washington.

slaves as three-fifths

of the population

Lee Anderson 2010

Virginia Plan


Standard vus 5

STANDARD VUS.5b The student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues involved in the creation and ratification of the Constitution of the United States of America and how the principles of limited government, consent of the governed, and the social contract are embodied in it byb)identifying the major compromises necessary to produce the Constitution, and the roles of James Madison and George Washington.

George Washington

James Madison

“Father of the Constitution”

Lee Anderson 2010

Chairman of the Convention


Standard vus 5

STANDARD VUS.5c The student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues involved in the creation and ratification of the Constitution of the United States of America and how the principles of limited government, consent of the governed, and the social contract are embodied in it byc)describing the conflict over ratification, including the Bill of Rights and the arguments of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists.

Alexander Hamilton

Federalist position

Thomas Jefferson

Anti-Federalist position

Lee Anderson 2010


Standard vus 5

STANDARD VUS.5dThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues involved in the creation and ratification of the Constitution of the United States of America and how the principles of limited government, consent of the governed, and the social contract are embodied in it byd)examining the significance of the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom in the framing of the Bill of Rights.

Lee Anderson 2010

Virginia Statute for

Religious Freedom

George Mason

James Madison


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