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National agricultural university of Ukraine “ Modern biotechnologies as new stage of nature evolution ” Kiev , NAU , 3-5 November 2008. World population: 1750 – 2050. Further growth, but at drastically declining rates. 12.0. 0.9. 0.8. 0.7. 9.0. 0.6. 0.5.

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National agricultural university of Ukraine

“Modern biotechnologies as new stage of nature evolution”

Kiev, NAU, 3-5 November 2008


World population: 1750 – 2050

Further growth, but at drastically declining rates

12.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

9.0

0.6

0.5

Annual increments (billions)

6.0

Total population (billions)

0.4

0.3

3.0

0.2

0.1

0.0

0

1750

1800

1850

1900

1950

2000

2050

Source: UN, 2003


Population growth is concentrated in developing countries


Urban and Rural Population – 1950-2030

Source: UN, World Population Assessment 2002


Rising consumption of livestock products


WORLD

from 6.05 billion to about 7.5 billion

Sources: ADB, POPCOM


To feed this population...

world cereal production should increase by 50%!


Wheat: actual versus potential yields

(high input, suitable land, rain-fed)

8

7

Potential

6

Actual

5

4

t/ha

3

2

1

0

Iran

USA

Brazil

Turkey

Ukraine

Ethiopia

Tanzania

Germany

Argentina


World markets and export opportunities


Global problems (addition):

Urbanisation


Global problems:

Water


Global problemsand issues:

  • Claims on natural resources

    • Land

    • Water

    • Energy

    • Nutrients

  • Claims on labour


With increasing demand for food and limiting resources...

we need better and more efficient ways to produce food

one option is through

Biotechnology


Bio

- life

Technology

- any technique or procedure to develop new products


Biotechnology

- any technique that uses whole or part of a living thing to make new products, improve or develop plants, animals and other organisms for specific use


GE of animals

GE of plants

GE to improve microorganisms

GE to develop animal vaccines

Recombinant DNA for disease diagnostics

GE of biocontrol agents against plant pest & diseases

Monoclonal anti body production

Plant protoplast fusion

Plant tissue culture

Embryo transfer

Fermentation, Biofertilizers


Insulin for diabetes

Interferon for treating cancer

Hepatitis B vaccine


Using living organisms to clean the environment


Food biotechnology

Improved food quality and food processing

Better tasting

More nutritious

Cleaner food


  • Better breeds of livestock and poultry

    • leaner meat

    • more milk

  • Vaccines

Animal biotechnology


Crops biotechnology

Tissue cultured planting materials

High yielding crops

Varieties resistant to pests and diseases

Diagnostic kits

Improved post harvest

qualities


Technique that transfers gene(s) of interest to develop and improve plants, animals and other organisms

Genetic engineering


Where are the differences among technologies?

Crop Plant

Wild Relative

Wild Relative

Crop Plant

ConventionalBreeding

Classical technology

Genetic Engineering

Modern technology


DNA – is similar biochemical structure for all biodiversity!

Conventional Breeding

  • limited to exchanges between the same or very closely related species

  • little or no guarantee of obtaining any particular gene combination from the millions of crosses generated

  • undesirable genes can be transferred along with desirable genes

  • take a long time to achieve desired results

Genetic Engineering

  • allows the direct transfer of one or just a few genes, between either closely or distantly related organisms

  • crop improvement can be achieved in a shorter time compared to conventional breeding


Genomics

How much information do we need for life?

sequenced

sequenced

sequenced

Arabidopsis (Model) 150,000,000*

Rice 420,000,000*

Maize 2,500,000,000

Wheat > 3000 books of 1000 pages 16,000,000,000

sequenced

30,000 - 40,000 Genes

sequenced

Genes = 90% similar to Rice

Genes = 90% similar to Rice

  • Genome Size Number ofbases (ATCG)

Bacteria (E. coli)> 1 book of 1000 pages 5,000,000*

Yeast 12,000,000*

Human 3,000,000,000*

  • The most important Crops of the World (70%)

    Rice- Smallest Genome, good Model System

    Maize- 6 x bigger as Rice, 80% repeated Sequences

    Wheat- 40 x bigger as Rice 90% repeated Sequences

sequenced


From Genomics to New Germplasm

The 2 Phases of Biology

Phase 2

Marker Assisted Breeding

B i o i n f o r m a t i c s

New Plant Traits

New Genes in

Genetically Modified Plants

New Germplasm

Reverse Genetics

Forward Genetics

Genotype

Phenotype

GeneRNAProteinsMetabolitesOrganisme

DNA

SequenceMapTranscriptomeProteome

MetabolomeProfiling

Genomics Platform

Phase1


Negative impacts in plant breeding

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Gene

Wild species Early (first steps) varieties Modern varieties

Domestication decreasing biodiversity!

Tanksley and McCouch, Science 1997 August 22; 277: 1063-1066


Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

= Transgenics

Products developed through genetic engineering


Energy: In need of vast areas

  • Plants fix no more than 3% of solar energy in sugars

  • 1.2 ton oil per hectare = 1000 liter diesel = 20.000 km

  • Consider the energy balance: 0.5 liter for 1 liter bio fuel


140

120

Total

Industrial

100

Developing

80

60

40

20

0

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Global Area of Biotech Crops, 1996 to 2007:

Industrial and Developing Countries (Million Hectares)

Source: Clive James, 2008


70

Soybean

60

Maize

Cotton

50

Canola

40

30

20

10

0

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Global Area of Biotech Crops, 1996 to 2007:

By Crop (Million Hectares)

Source: Clive James, 2008


Herbicide Tolerance

Insect Resistance

Herbicide Tolerance/Insect Resistance

Global Area of Biotech Crops, 1996 to 2007:

By Trait (Million Hectares)

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Source: Clive James, 2008


M Acres

160

396

148

Conventional

140

346

Biotech

120

297

91

100

247

80

198

60

148

35

40

99

27

20

49

0

0

64%

43%

24%

20%

Soybean

Cotton

Maize

Canola

Global Adoption Rates (%) for Principal

Biotech Crops (Million Hectares) 2007


Biotech Crop Countries and Mega-Countries, 2007


Genetic code: could we change it? Do we have the rights from the Nature?


Biotechnology – is scientific nuclear energy. It can be used as reactor for electricity supply or nuclear bomb for human and all biodiversity.

During our conference in Kiev up to 1 billion World’s population are hungry.

We must decide how to change it as soon as possible.

Everything in our brains, hands and souls.

Дякую за увагу!

Спасибо за внимание!

Thanks for attention!


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