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ARACY Access Grid Community Business Partnerships for Early Child Development (ECD). Closing the Gap Between What We Know and What We Do. By J. Fraser Mustard Founding Chairman The Council for Early Child Development . February 20, 2008. 07-183. Why the Gap. Lack of understanding.

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Closing the gap between what we know and what we do

ARACY Access Grid

Community Business Partnerships for Early Child Development (ECD)

Closing the Gap Between What We Know

and What We Do

By J. Fraser Mustard

Founding Chairman

The Council for Early Child Development

February 20, 2008


07 183

07-183

Why the Gap

Lack of understanding.

Beliefs and culture.

Social and economic factors.

Cost of quality ECD programs.

The role of the state (the child does not choose its parents).

Professional silos (prevention vs. treatment).


Closing the gap between what we know and what we do

“The rates and types of problems that we are currently seeing in our children and youth are unprecedented, complex problems that require innovative solutions.” Fiona Stanley


06 130

06-130

Presentation

Part 1: The Evolutionary History of Human Beings

Part 2: Developmental Neurobiology

Part 3: The Evidence about ECD

Part 4: Early Child Development and Parenting

Centres – Community Business Partnerships

Part 5: Outcome Measures

Part 6: Socioeconomic Considerations – Business

Community Partnerships


03 049

03-049

The Evolutionary History of

Human Beings

200, 000 Years

10, 000 Years – Agricultural Revolution

-- Civilization Experiments

3.000 to 4.000 Years – Written Language &

Alphabet

600 Years – Books

50 Years – Electronic Media


05 143

05-143

Agricultural Revolution –

10,000 years ago

Transition from hunter-gatherer societies to our experiments in civilization.

Short History of Progress

Wright 2004


01 002

The Growth of the World Population and

6

Some Major Events in the History of Technology

01-002

Exponential

Knowledge

and

4

Technology

Growth

Population (x 109)

2

Beginning of

Industrial

Revolution

Printing

1st Agricultural

Press

Revolution

9BC

0

2AD

5BC

3BC

1BC

1AD

Year (x 103)

Robert W. Fogel. “Economic Growth, Population Theory, and Physiology”, April 1994


05 144

05-144

21st Century / Changes

Exponential growth in knowledge and technology

Population growth, demographics (aging populations), migration and refugees

Changes in local and international economies

Climate change and resource constraints

Developmental neuroscience


06 107

06-107

The Economist

The Search for Talent

Why It’s Getting Harder to Find –

Business and Community

The Economist, October 7, 2006


07 003

07-003

Economist Magazine

The Importance of Neuroscience

September 21, 2006 – Learning Without Learning (Epigenetics)

October 7, 2006 – A Survey of Talent

December 23, 2006 – A Survey of the Brain

June 14, 2007 – RNA - Really New Advances (microRNA)


Closing the gap between what we know and what we do

PART 2

DEVELOPMENTAL

NEUROBIOLOGY


03 080

Experience-Based Brain development in the early years of life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

03-080

Health

Learning

Behaviour


03 013

03-013

The Hostage Brain

, Bruce S. McEwen and Harold M. Schmeck, Jr., 1994.


04 039

04-039

Two Neurons

RECIPIENT NEURON

Axon

Synapse

SIGNAL-SENDING NEURON

Dendrite


04 042

04-042

SENSING PATHWAYS


04 212

04-212

Sound

Vision

Smell

Touch

Proprioception

Taste

Neal Halfon


03 079

Vision and Hearing

Critical Periods

03-079

Eye cataracts at birth prevent normal

development of vision neurons in the

occipital cortex(Hubel and Wiesel)

Cochlear defects at birth and middle ear

infections in infants impair hearing and

language development

(Rauschecker and O’Donoghue, Fiona Stanley)


07 123

07-123

Brain Pathways

“Higher levels of brain circuits depend on precise, reliable information from lower levels in order to accomplish their function.

Sensitive periods for development of lower level circuits ends early in life.

High level circuits remain plastic for a longer period.”

Knudsen 2004


03 012

Synaptic Density

03-012

At Birth

6 Years Old

14 Years Old

Rethinking the Brain, Families and Work Institute, Rima Shore, 1997.


01 003

Human Brain Development –

Language and Cognition

01-003

Language

Sensing

Pathways

Higher

(vision, hearing)

Cognitive Function

9

-3

3

1

0

6

4

8

12

16

-6

Months

Years

Conception

AGE

C. Nelson, in From Neurons to Neighborhoods, 2000.


04 200

04-200

Early Child Development and Language

Starts early – first 7 months

Sets capability for mastering

multiple languages

Sets literacy and language trajectories


08 022

Levels of Literacy:

A Reflection of ECD

08-022

Level 1:

indicates persons with very poor skills.

Level 2:

people can deal with material that

is simple.

Level 3:

is considered a suitable minimum for

coping with the demands of everyday life.

Level 4:

people who demonstrate command of

higher-order processing skills.

Level 5:

competence in sophisticated reading tasks, managing information and critical thinking skills.


06 114

06-114

Socioeconomic Gradients for Adult

Document Literacy Scores

Mean Scores

350

310

Intern’l Mean

U.S.

270

Canada

Australia

230

Sweden

Finland

190

Chile

0

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

17

19

Parents’ Education (years)

OECD, 2000


05 178

05-178

Literacy Levels for the Total Population Ages 16 to 65 – USA

Prose

Document

Quantitative

Percent

Level

NALS, p. 17, 2002


05 173

05-173

Literacy Levels by Physical, Mental or Other Health Conditions – USA (Quantitative)

Health Problems

Mental or Emotional Problems

Long-term Illness

Percent

Level

NALS, p. 44, 2002


00 042

Sociocultural

360

00-042

Gradients for

Language

Cuba

Scores in

320

Latin America

Argentina

Chile

280

Brazil

Language Score

Colombia

Mexico

240

200

8

16

1

4

12

Parents' Education (Years)


07 105

07-105

Allostasis & Allostatic Load

(Stress)

Limbic HPA Pathway


05 212

05-212

Limbic HPA Pathway - Stress

Cortisol – Over Production

Behaviour, depression, diabetes, malnutrition, cardiovascular disease, memory, immune system, drug and alcohol addiction

Cortisol – Under Production

Chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, immune system (autoimmune disorders) rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, asthma


03 002

Sensory

Stimulus

03-002

Thalamus

Cortex

Amygdala

Hippocampus

-

-

+

+

Hypothalamus

PVN

Cortisol

Cortisol

CRF

PIT

ACTH

Adrenal

Cortex

LeDoux, Synaptic Self


05 213

05-213

Stress Pathway and Sensory Stimuli

Touch in the Early Period is Critical

Rats – Mothers licking pups (High versus Low Grooming)

Monkeys – Peer vs mother rearing

Humans - Attachment


08 014

08-014

Epigenetics

The process by which normal gene expression is altered by experience.

Genotype vs Phenotype


05 059

05-059

Hippocampal GR(17) Region 16

(5’ NGFI-A RE) Methylation Timeline

1.2

0.8

Licking

Low

Mean C-Methylation

0.4

Licking

High

0

Embryo

Day 20

Weaning

Day 21

Pup

Day 6

Adult

Day 90

Birth

Day 1

Age

M. Szyf


03 089

Serotonin Transporter Gene

Experience in Early Life - Depression

Age 26

03-089

Depression Risk

.70

SS

S = Short Allele L = Long Allele

.50

SL

LL

.30

No Abuse

Moderate Abuse

Severe Abuse

Early Childhood

A. Caspi, Science, 18 July 2003, Vol 301.


07 001

07-001

Early Experience and Brain Architecture and Function

Affects gene expression and neural pathways

Shapes emotion, regulates temperament and social development

Shapes perceptual and cognitive ability

Shapes physical and mental health and behaviour in adult life

Shapes physical activity (e.g. skiing, swimming, etc.)

Shapes language and literacy capability


Closing the gap between what we know and what we do

THE EVIDENCE

ABOUT

ECD and HUMAN DEVELOPMENT


08 015

08-015

Pregnancy and Infancy

Nutrition (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids)

Toxic substances – tobacco, alcohol and drugs

Sensing pathways and breastfeeding

Infections (pre- and post-natal)


05 115

05-115

Romanian Adoption Project

Scores at 10.5 Years

CB EA RO

IQ1089985

Language

Score1069988

Behaviour13% 9%43%

CB - Canadian Born – middle class families

EA - Early Adopted – middle class families

RO - Romanian Orphanage – middle class families

L. Le Mare


08 010

08-010

Romania – BEIP Project

The cognitive outcome of children who remained in the orphanages was markedly below that of non orphanage children and children taken out of the orphanage and placed in foster care.

Nelson et al. 2007. Science, v. 318


06 003

06-003

1958 British Birth Cohort

Age 45

Cortisol pathway response in adult correlates with ECD.

Children with poor ECD have dysfunctional cortisol secretion patterns at age 45.

Power and Hertzman


04 006

04-006

ECD Swedish Longitudinal Study and Adult Health

Adverse Early Child Development*

1

2

4

3

0

(None)

(Several)

Adult Health

Odds - Ratios

General Physical

1

1.39

1.54

2.08

2.66

1

1.56

1.53

2.91

7.76

Circulatory

Mental

1

1.78

2.05

3.76

10.27

* Economic, family size, broken family and family dissention

Lundberg, Soc. Sci. Med, Vol. 36, No. 8, 1993


04 153

04-153

Abecedarian Study – Reading

Effect Size

Special

Primary

Grades

Preschool

(4 mths to

School)

Preschool &

Special

Primary Grades

1.2

0.8

0.4

0

Age 8

Age 12

Age 15

Age 21

Age at Testing


Closing the gap between what we know and what we do

EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENTING CENTRES


06 001

06-001

Success by Ten

Early Child Development

Intervene early

Intervene often

Intervene effectively

Ludwig and Sawhill, Brookings Institution


07 055

07-055

What Provides the Best Results?

Centre Based Programs that:

Start Early

Involve Parents

Home Visiting

Qualified Staff in Neuroscience and Development


99 004

Source of Brain Stimulation

99-004

parent-oriented

child-oriented

age

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Components of Early Childhood Development and

Parenting Centres:

ECD & care (parental and non-parental) arrangements

Play-based learning

Resources

Prenatal & postnatal supports

Nutrition programs


05 029

05-029

Early Child Development

and Parenting Centres

Offer from conception to school entry

Provide support for parents

Learn parenting by doing

Provide non-parental care

Link to and integrate with primary schools

Detect development problems early


05 027

05-027

Recommendations to Involve

The Private Sector

Encourage private sector to give priority to community-based early child development and parenting centres

Parental leave policies

Establish incentives to build public-private sector partnerships


07 129

07-129

07-080

07-080

Parental Leave

Provide 18 months parental leave with income support, followed by one day weekly leave for both parents until age three to be involved in the Early Child Development & Parenting Centre.


Closing the gap between what we know and what we do

Chaos

Early intervention

Health

Education

Family support

Social services

Local school authorities

Public health

Munici-palities

Community services

Parks & recreation

Parenting

centres

Kindergartens

Preschools

Children’s mental health centres

Child care


04 034

04-034

Barriers to Implementing ECDP Programs

  • Economics

  • Lack of understanding (government, public and professional)

  • The state as a nanny

  • No commitment to equality


07 158

07-158

Cost to Individuals and

Canadian Society of

Poor Early Child Development (estimates)

Crime $120 Billion/year

Mental Health $100 Billion/year

Behaviour and

Drug Use

Australia $ 35/Billion/year

Substance Abuse


08 033

08-033

The Brookings Institution in the US projects said that a high quality universal preschool policy would boost the size of the US economy by US$270 Billion by 2050 and by over US$2 Trillion by 2080.

K. Rudd, New Leadership, 2007


07 157

07-157

Cost of ECD-P Centres

(Pregnancy to Grade 1)

Age 0 to 6 Population

Universal (2,500,000 children)

Cost $18.5 Billion (1.5% of GDP)

Present Expenditure 0.25% of GDP


Closing the gap between what we know and what we do

Australian cost for ECD-P Centres about

$12 Billion (Cdn $)


03 116

03-116

OUTCOME

MEASURES


03 085

Early Development Instrument (EDI)

03-085

Physical health and well-being

Social knowledge and competence

Emotional health/maturity

Language and cognitive development

Communication skills and general

knowledge


07 027

07-027

Australia – AEDI

Children 5-6 yrs.

% Vulnerable

40

30

20

10

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q5

Q6

SES - Income


06 148

06-148

Vancouver EDI

Numeracy

# of % Failing % Not Passing

Vulnerabilities Grade 4 Grade 4

07.5 12.3

1 11.8 22.2

2-3 18.7 33.8

4-5 27.5 55.6

Hertzman, HELP, 2006


07 204

07-204

Decrease in the % of vulnerable children as a result of improved ECD in Western Australia

Year

2003 2006

Floreat47.22%14.3%

Wembley47.11% 11.8%

AEDI


Closing the gap between what we know and what we do

SOCIOECONOMIC

CONSIDERATIONS


06 078

Heckman - Education

06-078

Schools contribute little to test score gaps among children.

Later schooling has little effect in reducing the gaps that appear early.

Criminal rehabilitation and adult literacy programs have limited effect.


02 056

02-056

Policies to Foster Human Capital

"We cannot afford to postpone investing in

children until they become adults nor can we

wait until they reach school - a time when it

may be too late to intervene."

Heckman, J., 2001

(Nobel Prize Economics, 2000)


03 074

03-074

Rates of Return to Human Development

Investment Across all Ages

8

6

Pre-school Programs

Return

Per

$

Invested

School

4

R

Job Training

2

Pre-

School

School

Post School

0

6

18

Age

Carneiro, Heckman, Human Capital Policy, 2003


06 063

Public expenditures for children 0-17 years of age, Sweden 1995, by age of child

06-063


01 050

01-050

The principle of free education for

school-age children is already entrenched

throughout the rich world; there would be

nothing incongruous about extending it

further down the age range.

The Economist, pg 16, July 18, 1998


08 021

08-021

Canadian Council for ECD

Private sector and community

Educate all sectors of society

Facilitate application of EDI and its interpretation

Prepare and support fellows to work with all sectors of society (private and public)


04 046

04-046

Council for Early Child Development

Objective:

To establish ECD and Parenting Centres linked to the school system with outcome research, supported by all sectors of society, including business and government, that is universally available to all families with young children.


07 101

07-101

07-098

Council for Early

Child Development

“From Early Child Development to Human Development: Capacity of our Future population depends on what we do now to support Early Child Development.”

.


04 045

04-045

Council for Early Child Development

Chair – Dr. Robin Williams

Vice Chair – Dr. Frieda Granot

Vice Chair – Jim Grieve

President – Dr. Clyde Hertzman

C.O.O. – John Doherty

401 Richmond St. W., Suite 277

Toronto, ON, M5V 3A8

[email protected]

For more information:

http://www.councilecd.ca


Closing the gap between what we know and what we do

A goal of ARACY and the A goal of ARACY and The Canadian Council for Early Child Development and Parenting is to close the gap between what we know and what we do in our societies – we know what to do.


01 039

01-039

www.founders.net

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