Tooth histology and morphology
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Tooth Histology and Morphology. Oral Anatomy, DA102. Succedaneous Teeth. Refer to a permanent tooth that replaces, or succeeds a deciduous tooth in the same position . Succedaneous Teeth. Surface shapes of the facial and lingual. Cusps. Pointed or rounded mound on

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Tooth Histology and Morphology

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Tooth histology and morphology

Tooth Histology and Morphology

Oral Anatomy, DA102

Succedaneous teeth

Succedaneous Teeth

Refer to a permanent tooth that replaces, or succeeds a deciduous tooth in the same position.

Succedaneous teeth1

Succedaneous Teeth

Surface shapes of the facial and lingual

Surface shapes of the facial and lingual



  • Pointed or rounded mound on

    the crown of the tooth

  • Referred to by their position on the



    distal cusp

    mesial cusp

    distal buccal cusp

Ridges elevated area of enamel

Ridges: elevated area of enamel

triangular ridge

Tooth histology and morphology


Small depressions in

surfaces of teeth



  • Separate parts that come together to form a tooth.

  • In a molar, the lobes often becomes cusps

  • On lingual surface of maxillary

    anteriors, lobes are called




  • Lineal depressions running

    between cusps; give

    distinct character to teeth

  • Fissures: developmental grooves

    between lobes



Dividing point of a multi-rooted tooth

Two roots = bifurcated

Three roots = trifurcated

Contacts and embrasures

Contacts and Embrasures

Contact: where proximal surfaces of teeth come together and touch

Embrasure: triangular space in the gingival direction where two adjacent teeth are in contact



Shallow rounded or angular depression



Three bulges on the incisal edge of newly erupted central incisor. They normally disappear from normal wear.

newly erupted teeth

Permanent teeth refer to delmar text for illustrations

Permanent Teethrefer to Delmar text for illustrations

  • Maxillary

    • AnteriorsCentrals, Laterals, Canines

      • 5 surfaces: labial, lingual, mesial, distal, incisal edge

    • Posterior1st, 2nd Premolars; 1st, 2nd, 3rd Molars

      • 5 surfacesbuccal, lingual, mesial, distal, occlusal

  • Mandibular

    • AnteriorsCentrals, Laterals, Canines

      • 5 surfaces:labial, lingual, mesial, distal, incisal edge

    • Posteriors:1st , 2nd Premolars; 1st, 2nd, 3rd Molars

      • 5 surfaces:buccal, lingual, mesial, distal, occlusal

Maxillary central incisor

Maxillary Central Incisor

Teeth Numbers:#8 and #9

Sharp incisal edge

Largest, widest incisor in mouth

Flat labial surface

Well-developed cingulum with pit

Thumb-nail shape

Mesio-incisal edge = sharp corner

Disto-incisal edge = rounded

Single root Age of eruption: 7 – 8 years

Maxillary central incisor1

Maxillary Central Incisor

LabialIncisal edgeLingual

Maxillary lateral incisor

Maxillary Lateral Incisor

Tooth Numbers:#7 and #10

Similar shape to centrals

Smaller, shorter, narrower, thinner than centrals

More rounded corners on mesio-incisal edge

Smaller cingulum than centrals

Flat labial surface

Definite lingual pit and fossa

Single root Age of eruption: 8 – 9 years

Maxillary lateral incisor1

Maxillary Lateral Incisor

Labial Incisal Edge Lingual

Maxillary canine

Maxillary Canine

Tooth Numbers: #6 and #11

aka “eye-tooth” or cuspid

Longest strongest tooth in human dentition

Defines mouth and face shape (cornerstone of arch)

Incisal edge = rounded and pointed (cusp)

Labial surface has prominent curvature labial ridge

Lingual surface is concave with marginal ridges

Cingulum = bulky

Single rootAge of eruption: 11 – 12 years

Maxillary canine1

Maxillary Canine

Labial Incisal EdgeLingual

Maxillary 1 st premolar

Maxillary 1st Premolar

  • Tooth Numbers:#5 and #12

  • 2 cusps: buccal (larger) and lingual

  • aka: bicuspid

  • Usually two roots (can be single-rooted)

    • Buccal and lingual roots

  • Age of eruption:10 – 11 years

Maxillary 1 st premolar1

Maxillary 1st Premolar

Maxillary 2 nd premolars

Maxillary 2nd Premolars

Tooth numbers: #4 and #13

Smaller and less bulky than 1st premolar

2 cusps = buccal and lingual

Single root

Age of eruption: 10 – 12 years

Maxillary 2 nd premolar

Maxillary 2nd Premolar

Maxillary 1 st molar

Maxillary 1st Molar

  • Tooth Numbers: #3 and #14

  • aka: 6-year molars

  • Trifurcated, wide-spread roots

    • Mesiobuccal, distobuccal, palatal

  • 4 cusps

    • mesiolingual, mesiobuccal, distolingual, distobuccal

    • ML = largest cusp; DL = smallest cusp

    • Sometimes: 5th cusp (cusp of Carabelli) located on mesiolingual surface, about 1/3 way down from occlusal surface

  • Age of eruption: 6 – 7 years

Maxillary 1 st molar1

Maxillary 1st Molar


Cusp of Carabelli

Maxillary 2 nd molar

Maxillary 2nd Molar

  • Tooth Numbers: #2 and #15

  • aka: 12 year molars

  • Slightly shorter and smaller than 1st molars

  • Roots are usually longer than 1st molars

  • Trifurcated roots, not as widespread as 1st molar

    • Mesiobuccal, distobuccal, palatal

  • 4 cusps:

    • Mesiolingual, mesiobuccal, distolingual, distobuccal

    • No cusp of Carabelli

  • Age of eruption: 12 – 13 years

Maxillary 2 nd molar1

Maxillary 2nd Molar


Maxillary 3 rd molars

Maxillary 3rd molars

Tooth Numbers: #1 and #16

aka: wisdom teeth

Size, shape, and contour differs greatly; may be distorted

Smaller than 1st and 2nd molars

Possibility of 1, 2, or 3 roots; often fused together

Age of eruption: 17 – 21 years

Maxillary 3 rd molar

Maxillary 3rd Molar


Maxillary molar comparison

Maxillary Molar Comparison

3rd 2nd 1st 3rd 2nd 1st

Mandibular central incisor

Mandibular Central Incisor

Tooth Numbers: # 24 and # 25

Smallest incisor in mouth; smallest tooth in mouth

Smaller than mandibular lateral

Lingual surface is concave with a flat cingulum

Incisal edge is right angles with mesial and distal

First primary tooth to exfoliate and be replaced by succedaneous tooth

Single root

Age of eruption: 6-7 years

Mandibular central incisor1

Mandibular Central Incisor

Mandibular lateral incisor

Mandibular Lateral Incisor

Tooth numbers: # 23 and # 26

Larger than central incisors

Distal-incisal edge slops apically (toward root)

Cingulum positioned slightly to the distal

Single root

Age of eruption: 7 – 8 years

Mandibular lateral incisor1

Mandibular Lateral Incisor

Mandibular canine

Mandibular Canine

Tooth Numbers: # 22 and # 27

AKA: cuspid or eye-tooth

Smaller and more slender than maxillary canine

Smooth lingual surface; cingulum rarely present

Cusp ridge: distal ridge is longer than mesial ridge

Labial is rounded and prominent

Single root

Age of eruption: 9 – 10 years

Mandibular canine1

Mandibular Canine

Facial Incisal Lingual

Mandibular first premolar

Mandibular First Premolar

Tooth Numbers: # 21 and # 28

AKA: 1st bicuspid

Smaller than 2nd premolars

Large buccal cusp with smaller, non-functional lingual cusp

Transverse ridge across occlusal surface

Rounded buccal surface

Single root

Age of eruption: 10 – 12 years

Mandibular first premolar1

Mandibular First Premolar

Facial Occlusal Lingual

Mandibular second premolar

Mandibular Second Premolar

Tooth Numbers: # 20 and # 29

AKA: 2nd bicuspid

Single buccal cusp with 1 or 2 smaller lingual cusps

Lingual cusps are more prominent than on 1st premolar

Larger and longer root than 1st premolar

Single root

Age of eruption: 11 – 12 years

Mandibular second premolar1

Mandibular Second Premolar

Facial Occlusal Lingual

Mandibular first molar

Mandibular First Molar

  • Tooth Numbers: # 19 and # 30

  • AKA: 6 year molar

  • First permanent tooth to erupt in the mouth

  • Usually largest mandibular tooth

  • 5 well-developed cusps:

    • Mesiobuccal, distobuccal, mesiolingual, distolingual, distal

    • 5th cusp is the distal cusp

    • All cusps are on the lingual surface

  • 2 buccal grooves; 1 lingual groove

  • Crown shape is somewhat rectangular

  • 2 roots: mesial and distal; spaced wide apart

  • Age of eruption: 6 – 7 years

Mandibular first molar1

Mandibular First Molar

Facial Occlusal Lingual

Mandibular second molar

Mandibular Second Molar

  • Tooth Numbers: # 18 and # 31

  • AKA: 12 year molar

  • 4 cusps:

    • Mesiobuccal, distobuccal, mesiolingual, distolingual

    • All located on occlusal surface

    • Lingual cusps are more pointed and longer than buccal cusps

  • 1 buccal groove; 1 lingual groove

  • 2 roots: mesial and distal; not as wide-spread as 1st molars

  • Age of eruption: 11 – 13 years

Mandibular second molar1

Mandibular Second Molar

Facial Occlusal Lingual

Mandibular third molar

Mandibular Third Molar

  • Tooth Numbers: # 17 and # 32

  • AKA: wisdom tooth

  • Size, shape, contour differ widely:

    • Smaller than 1st and 2nd molars

    • More grooves

    • 4-5 cusps, not as defined as 1st and 2nd molars

  • 2 roots: usually fused together

  • Age of eruption: 17 – 21 years

Mandibular third molars

Mandibular Third Molars

Facial Occlusal Lingual

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