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Go get papers from return tray! **Make up tests!** Please get notes sheet from side NO SCHOOL THURS OR FRIDAY!. Objectives for Today: Explain why cells divide. THE CELLULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE. CHAPTER 9. Why Is Cell Reproduction Essential for Life?. #1) Maintain/Heal the Body

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slide1

Go get papers from return tray!

**Make up tests!**

Please get notes sheet from side

NO SCHOOL THURS OR FRIDAY!

slide2

Objectives for Today:

Explain why cells divide.

why is cell reproduction essential for life
Why Is Cell ReproductionEssential for Life?

#1) Maintain/Heal the Body

– TO REPLACE LOST OR DAMAGED

CELLS

Example:

Every minute of the day we lose about 30,000 to 40,000 dead skin cells off the surface of our skin.

why is cell reproduction essential for life1
Why Is Cell Reproduction Essential for Life?

#2) GROWTH

- Increase body size by increasing the number of cells in the body

Your cells can only get so big. Why?

why is cell reproduction essential for life2
Why Is Cell Reproduction Essential for Life?

#3) REPRODUCTION = TO CREATE

A COMPLETE NEW ORGANISM.

2 TYPES OF REPRODUCTION:

a) ASEXUAL

b) SEXUAL

asexual reproduction
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

How Many Parents?

  • SINGLE PARENT
  • OFFSPRING ARE GENETICALLY IDENTICAL TO EACH OTHER AND TO PARENT.
  • SEEN IN UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS AND SOME MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS SUCH AS PLANTS,FUNGI, AND SOME ANIMALS LIKE SPONGES AND STARFISH.
sexual reproduction
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
  • 2 PARENTS
  • GENETIC MATERIAL (CARRIED IN EGG AND SPERM) FROM EACH PARENT COMBINES
  • EACH OFFSPRING IS GENETICALLY DIFFERENT FROM PARENTS
  • Egg and Sperm are produced through

cell division

review why do cells divide and produce new cells
REVIEW:WHY DO CELLS DIVIDE AND PRODUCE NEW CELLS?

For Maintenance of the body

(multicellular organisms)

For Growth

(multicellular organisms)

For Reproduction

(multi- and unicellular organisms)

slide10
Assignments:

Read Section 9.1 (pgs 180-181) Answer guided reading questions.

Vocabulary for 9.4

Quiz on Wednesday!

slide11

Please get out your homework from last night.

QUIZ TOMORROW: Vocab and Why cell’s divide notes/reading

Objectives for today:

Explain and Describe the Cell Cycle

videos
Videos
  • Robert Wadlow Jr. World’s Tallest Man~! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7N4bg1btzY4
  • Skin Gun http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eXO_ApjKPaI
the cell cycle
The“CELL CYCLE”
  • STARTS WHEN A CELL IS “BORN” & ENDS WHEN IT REPRODUCES.
  • CELL CYCLE PRODUCES CELLS NEEDED FOR GROWTH & MAINTENANCE OF THE BODY
the cell cycle1
The“CELL CYCLE”

Cell is not

dividing

(Most of

the time)

Cell is

dividing

Nucleus

divides

first

Cytoplasm

divides

last

the cell cycle2
The“CELL CYCLE”
  • HAS 2 MAIN STAGES:
      • INTERPHASE
        • cell isn’t dividing
      • MITOTIC PHASE
        • cell is dividing
interphase
INTERPHASE
  • WHAT IS IT?
  • WHAT HAPPENS DURING IT?
interphase1
INTERPHASE
  • LONGEST STAGE (90% OF THE CELL CYCLE)
  • THE CELL GROWS & PERFORMS ITS JOB AS A CELL
interphase2
INTERPHASE
  • IN THIS STAGE DNA EXISTS AS A MASS OF VERY LONG THIN FIBERS CALLED

_________________.

CHROMATIN

interphase3
INTERPHASE
  • CELL ALSO PREPARES TO REPRODUCE (CELL DIVISION) BY INCREASING ITS NUMBER OF ORGANELLES & BY MAKING COPIES OF ALL ITS _____________.

DNA

muy importante!!!

  • EACH DNA STRAND IS COPIED & THE 2 COPIES ARE
  • JOINED AT ONE SPOT CALLED THE __________________.

CENTROMERE

what happens next
What Happens Next?!
  • After the cell has made all its preparations, then it divides!
  • On to the Mitotic Phase!!
mitotic phase
MITOTIC PHASE
  • SHORTEST STAGE of the CELL CYCLE
  • THIS IS WHERE 1CELL DIVIDESINTO2 CELLS
  • OCCURS IN 2 STEPS:

1) MITOSIS

2) CYTOKINESIS

mitosis
MITOSIS
  • All about the Nucleus!
  • In this stage the nucleus divides into 2 and the chromosomes are evenly divided up.
  • Each daughter nucleus
  • receives a complete
  • set of chromosomes
mitosis1
MITOSIS

SISTER

CHROMATIDS

  • ALL THE DUPLICATED CHROMATIN FIBERS NOW COIL UP (GET SHORTER & THICKER) & ARE CALLED

____________________.

  • EACH CHROMOSOME IS MADE UP OF 2 IDENTICAL HALVES CALLED ______________

.

CHROMOSOMES

SISTER

CHROMATIDS

mitosis2
MITOSIS
  • The SISTER CHROMATIDS SEPARATE & GO TO OPPOSITE ENDS OF THE CELL FORMING 2 NEW “DAUGHTER” NUCLEI
cytokinesis
CYTOKINESIS
  • The CYTOPLASM DIVIDES BETWEEN THE 2 NEW “DAUGHTER” NUCLEI FORMING 2 NEW CELLS
the cell cycle3
The“CELL CYCLE”

Cell is not

dividing

(Most of

the time)

Cell is

dividing

MITOTIC

PHASE

INTERPHASE

Nucleus

divides

first

Cytoplasm

divides

last

MITOSIS

CYTO-

KINESIS

name the structure
Name the Structure!

Centromere

?

?

?

Centromere

?

?

?

Chromosomes

SISTER

CHROMATIDS

?

slide31
2nd and 3rd hour—You will be testing Thursday!

Mitosis Quiz Friday!

Pass back Cell Respiration Quests

slide32
Objectives for today:

Trace the path of the cell cycle!

cell cycle
CELL CYCLE

INTERPHASE – non-dividing phase

G1- Grow bigger Cell is “doing its job” DNA is spread out as chromatin

S - Synthesis (copy DNA) & chromosomal proteins

G2- Grow bigger, make organelles & molecules needed for cell division

cell division
CELL DIVISION

MITOSIS – Nuclear division

Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

Cytokinesis – Cytoplasm divides

G0 – cell stops dividing (Ex: nerve cell)

slide37

In between divisionsCells are in this phase most of the time

Can see nucleus

DNA spread out as chromatin

Can’t see chromosomes

DNA gets copied (S)

Cell gets ready to divide

INTERPHASE (G1 - S - G2)

slide38

Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall

PROPHASE

1st dividing phase

http://www.life.uiuc.edu/plantbio/102/lectures/08mit&veg102.html

DNA scrunches into chromosomes

Centrioles appear in centrosome region & move to poles

Nuclear membrane & nucleolus disappear

Spindle fibers form & attach to chromosomes

region organizes spindle

CENTROSOME

________ region organizes spindle

Spindle MICROTUBULES are part of cytoskeleton

http://www.coleharbourhigh.ednet.ns.ca/library/organelle_worksheet.htm

slide40

Chromosomes line up in

___________

METAPHASE

middle

Images from:Pearson Eduction Ince; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall http://www.science.siu.edu/plant-biology/PLB117/JPEGs%20CD/0247.JPG

slide41

Centromeres splitCentrioles pull chromatids_______

ANAPHASE

apart

Images from:Pearson Eduction Ince; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall http://www.science.siu.edu/plant-biology/PLB117/JPEGs%20CD/0247.JPG

slide42

two

See ______ nuclei

Nuclear membrane & nucleolus return

TELOPHASE (reverse prophase steps)

Chromosomes spread out as chromatin

Centrioles disappear

Spindle fibers disappear

Images from:Pearson Eduction Ince; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall

http://www2.bc.cc.ca.us/cnewton/Biology%2011/Mitosis.html

slide43

CYTOKINESIS

Cytoplasm splits into 2 cells

ANIMAL CELLS pinch cytoplasm in two

with a ______________________

CLEAVAGE FURROW

slide44

CYTOKINESIS

Cytoplasm splits into 2 cells

PLANT CELLS can’t pinch because

they have a sturdy ____________

Plant cells separate cytoplasm by growing a _______________ down the middle.

CELL WALL

CELL PLATE

http://www.eastcentral.edu/acad/depts/BI/plant_mitosis_nolabels.html

slide45

Section 10-2

Spindle forming

Centrioles

Centromere

Chromatin

Centriole

Nuclear envelope

Chromosomes (paired chromatids)

Interphase

Prophase

Spindle

Cytokinesis

Centriole

Metaphase

Individual chromosomes

Telophase

Anaphase

Nuclear envelope reforming

slide46

Section 10-2

Spindle forming

Centrioles

Centromere

Chromatin

Centriole

Nuclear envelope

Chromosomes (paired chromatids)

Interphase

Prophase

Spindle

Cytokinesis

Centriole

Metaphase

Individual chromosomes

Telophase

Anaphase

Nuclear envelope reforming

slide47

Section 10-2

Spindle forming

Centrioles

Centromere

Chromatin

Centriole

Nuclear envelope

Chromosomes (paired chromatids)

Interphase

Prophase

Spindle

Cytokinesis

Centriole

Metaphase

Individual chromosomes

Telophase

Anaphase

Nuclear envelope reforming

slide48

Section 10-2

Spindle forming

Centrioles

Centromere

Chromatin

Centriole

Nuclear envelope

Chromosomes (paired chromatids)

Interphase

Prophase

Spindle

Cytokinesis

Centriole

Metaphase

Individual chromosomes

Telophase

Anaphase

Nuclear envelope reforming

slide49

Section 10-2

Spindle forming

Centrioles

Centromere

Chromatin

Centriole

Nuclear envelope

Chromosomes (paired chromatids)

Interphase

Prophase

Spindle

Cytokinesis

Centriole

Metaphase

Individual chromosomes

Telophase

Anaphase

Nuclear envelope reforming

slide50

Section 10-2

Spindle forming

Centrioles

Centromere

Chromatin

Centriole

Nuclear envelope

Chromosomes (paired chromatids)

Interphase

Prophase

Spindle

Cytokinesis

Centriole

Metaphase

Individual chromosomes

Telophase

Anaphase

Nuclear envelope reforming

slide51
Cell Cycle Flip Book …

Due end of class tomorrow! You will have the hour to complete it!

Mitosis Quiz Friday!

slide52

2nd hour: Turn in your flip-books to basket with your rubric (does not need to be attached)

Objective for Today:

Vocab Quiz –after quiz sit quietly and wait for directions.

Analyze the cell cycle with a partner.

CELL CYCLE QUIZ TUESDAY!!!!

slide53

11/19/2012

  • Objectives for Today:
    • Sock-a-some Activity
    • Cell Cycle Packet from Friday is homework! –Good review!
    • CELL CYCLE QUIZ TUESDAY!!!!
    • Rube-GoldBerg Weds
    • NO SCHOOL THURS—TURKEY!!!
    • NO SCHOOL FRI- SHOPPING???
slide54

11/26/2012

  • Bell Ringer:
  • Get out a sheet of paper: (Answer these questions)
      • Explain what you know about cancer?
        • Have you been effected by cancer?
  • How?
faces of cancer
Faces of Cancer
  • You are going to work as teams.
  • Each one of you will become a different person.
  • You will each discuss your life and how you got cancer.
  • It is important that you DO NOT work ahead. You need to work with your group.
slide56

Get out your handouts from yesterday. We are going to discuss!

Read over your answers.

Be ready to discuss, you never know who I am going to call on 

let s discuss yesterday
Let’s Discuss Yesterday…
  • Conclusions:
    • 1. Family History
    • 2. Relationship Between Cancer and Age
    • 3. Types of Cancer
    • 4. Possible Risk Factors
slide60
Discussion Questions:
  • In this activity, all students in the class assumed the role of someone who developed cancer sometime in his or her lifetime. Is this an accurate representation of the risk of cancer among the American population?
  • What explanation can you offer for the observation you made about the incidence of cancer compared with age?
  • What is the most interesting or surprising thing you learned from this activity? What was the most important? Why?
regulating the cell cycle
Regulating the Cell cycle

Cyclins- proteins regulate the timing of the cell cycle

1.) Internal regulators: ex-won’t let cell enter mitosis until all the chrom. are copied

2.) External regulators: respond to events outside the cell- speed up or slow down the cell cycle

ex: growth factors-stimulate growth in embryo development or wound healing

slide63

B. Cells sometimes do not respond to cell cycle regulators-form tumors or cancer -cells keep dividing when they shouldn’t.

1. Benign-noncancerous growth, doesn’t spread- usually remove

2.Malignant-cancerous growth – can spread throughout body

a. cancer cells invade and destroy neighboring cells

3. All cancer is caused by cells losing control over the cell cycle

slide66
c. Stem cells

1. unspecialized cells capable of renewing themselves through cell division, sometimes after long periods of inactivity

a. embryonic stem cells or adult stem cells

2. Under certain conditions, they can be induced to become tissue- or organ-specificcells with specialfunctions

ex: scientists can use undifferentiated stem cells to grow other types of cells nerve, muscle, heart, etc.

slide67
Homework: Read Pages 190-191 in your book.

Answer questions 1-3 on page 190.

TEST FRIDAY! --You will get study guides tomorrow! I will post a copy online, so if you are absent tomorrow, check online!

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