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A.B.A. APPLIED BEHAVIOURAL ANALYSIS.

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A b a
A.B.A

APPLIED BEHAVIOURAL ANALYSIS


WHAT IS ABA? ABA, formerly called behavior modification, is the science in which tactics derived from the principle of behavior ( reinforcements, extinction, punishment, stimulus control, motivation operations) are applied to improve social significant behavior (language, play, socialization, self-help) and data is used to identify the variables responsible for change.


Behavior analysis focuses on the principles that explain how learning takes place. Positive reinforcement is one such principle. When a behavior is followed by some sort of reward, the behavior is more likely to be repeated.


ABA learning takes place. Positive reinforcement is one such principle. When a behavior is followed by some sort of reward, the behavior is more likely to be repeated

BEHAVIOUR

ABC’s

Antecedents, behaviors and consequences

A

C

B

Consequences. What happens to the child following the behavior

The child’s behavior

Events that happen before a behavior occurs

“good behavior” (sharing a toy)

“bad behavior” (throwing tantrums)

What are the circumstances that led to the behavior

extinction

Punishment (time-out)

Reinforcement

environment

Skills gained

Reflexive


What does a b a involve
WHAT DOES A.B.A INVOLVE? learning takes place. Positive reinforcement is one such principle. When a behavior is followed by some sort of reward, the behavior is more likely to be repeated

Planning and Ongoing Assessment

* A qualified and trained behavior analyst designs and directly oversees the intervention.* The analyst’s development of treatment goals stems from a detailed assessment of each learner's skills and preferences and may also include family goals.* Treatment goals and instruction are developmentally appropriate and target a broad range of skill areas such as communication, sociability, self-care, play and leisure, motor development and academic skills.


* Goals emphasize skills that will enable learners to become independent and successful in both the short and long terms.* The instruction plan breaks down desired skills into manageable steps to be taught from the simplest (e.g. imitating single sounds) to the more complex (e.g. carrying on a conversation).* The intervention involves ongoing objective measurement of the learner’s progress.* The behavior analyst frequently reviews information on the learner’s progress and uses this to adjust procedures and goals as needed.


A b a techniques and philosophy
A.B.A TECHNIQUES AND PHILOSOPHY independent and successful in both the short and long terms.

The use of a variety of behavior analytic procedure.

Training of parents or a family member or caregiver.

Structure

Reinforcements


What kind of progress can be expected with a b a
WHAT KIND OF PROGRESS CAN BE EXPECTED WITH A.B.A independent and successful in both the short and long terms.

The outcome from ABA varies from individual to individual., in respective of their strengths, weakness and goals. And other factors such as family goals, age of the individual and level of functioning and their environment

Competently delivered ABA intervention can help learners with autism make meaningful changes in many areas. However changes do not occur quickly. Rather most learners require intensive and ongoing instruction that builds on their step-by-step progress.


Tasks and task analysis
Tasks and task analysis independent and successful in both the short and long terms.

Task analysis is a process in which a task is analyzed into its component parts so that those parts can be taught through the use of chaining forward or backwards and total task presentation.

CHAINING: Task-learning to brush teeth

PROMPT: Cues for assistance to encourage desired response

FADING: Systematic removal of prompts


Types of prompts
Types of prompts independent and successful in both the short and long terms.

Vocal prompts

Visual prompts (use of pictures)

gestural prompts (sign language)

Positional prompts

Modeling

Physical prompts


Who is qualified to provide a b a
WHO IS QUALIFIED TO PROVIDE A.B.A independent and successful in both the short and long terms.

Just as a medical treatment should be directed by a medical professional

ABA programs for learners with autism should be designed and supervised by qualified professionals, which include either a licensed clinical psychologists with training in ABA or behavior analysts, who are board certified with supervised experience providing ABA treatment for autism or have equivalent training and experience.


Typical a b a sessions

TYPICAL A.B.A SESSIONS independent and successful in both the short and long terms.


The road ahead is bumpy. There will be times when your progress stalls or when it takes an unexpected turn. When it does, try to remind yourself that these are speed bumps, not road blocks. Take them 1 at a time. It is important that you start now. There are a variety of services available to treat and educate your child


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