Spirulina. Spirulina. Blue-green algae 62% amino acid content natural source of vitamin B12 whole spectrum of natural mixed carotene and xanthophyll phytopigments gamma-linolenic fatty acid cell wall made of complex sugars and protein
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Al-Batshan et al., 2001
Dasgupta et al., 2001
Zhang et al., 2001
Rodriguez-Hernandez et al., 2001
Pinero Estrada et al., 2001
Hirahashi et al., 2002
Hayashi et al., 1993
Ayehunie et al., 1998
In vitro studies :
Q.S. Pang, B.J. Guo, J.H. Ruan, Enhancement of endonuclease activity and repair DNA synthesis by polysaccharide of Spirulina platensis, I Chuan Hsuch Pao 15 (1998) 374–381.
M.A. Qureshi, M.T. Kidd, R.A. Ali, Spirulina platensis extract enhances chicken macrophage functions after in vitro exposure, J. Nutritional Immunol. 3 (1995) 35–45.
M.A. Qureshi, J.D. Garlich, M.T. Kidd, Dietary Spirulinaplatensis enhances humoral and cell-mediated immune functions in chickens, Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 18 (1996) 465–476.
M.A. Qureshi, R.A. Ali, Spirulina platensis exposure enhances macrophage phagocytic function in cats, Immunopharmacol.Immunotoxicol. 18 (1996) 457–463.
Clinical studies :
No fair trial of the effectiveness of whole algal supplementation.
In vitro evidence : Seaweeds and Spirulina extracts in vitro inhibit a variety of enveloped viruses
Hayashi K, Hayashi T, Kojima I. A natural sulfated polysaccharide, calcium spirulan, isolated from Spirulina platensis: in vitro and ex vivo evaluation of anti-herpes simplex virus and anti-human immunodeficiency virus activities. AIDS Res Hum Retrov 1996;12(15):1463–71.
Witvrouw M, De Clercq E. Sulfated polysaccharides extracted from sea algae as potential antiviral drugs. Gen Pharmacol 1997;29(4):497–511.
Schaeffer DJ, Krylov VS. Anti-HIV activity of extracts and compounds from algae and cyanobacteria. Ecotoxicol Environ Safe 2000;45(3):208–27, 10.1006/cesa.1999.1862.
From a nutritional point of view, although inferior to the best protein of animal origin, Spirulina protein ranks as one of the best protein sources of plant origin.
A case report of suspected spirulina-induced hepatoxicity in Japan.
AJG – Vol. 97, No. 12, 2002