OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY
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OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY. M.ARUN KUMAR., B.O.T., OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST MERF Institute of Speech and Hearing. Take a moment to think of some of the things (occupations) you have done today. have you had a shower, had lunch with friends, or gone to work?. Now imagine this. HOW WOULD YOU….

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OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY

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Occupational therapy

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY

M.ARUN KUMAR., B.O.T.,

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST

MERF Institute of Speech and Hearing


Take a moment to think of some of the things occupations you have done today

Take a moment to think of some of the things (occupations) you have done today...

  • have you had a shower,

  • had lunch with friends,

  • or gone to work?

Now imagine this...


How would you

HOW WOULD YOU…

  • You had poor balance?

  • You couldn’t reach your arms up to your hair?

HAVE A SHOWER IF…


How would you1

HOW WOULD YOU…

  • You couldn’t hold a fork?

  • You couldn’t remember where to meet them?

  • You just couldn’t cope with getting out of bed?

HAVE LUNCH WITH FRIENDS IF…


How would you2

HOW WOULD YOU…

  • You had pain in your back?

  • You heard voices in your head?

  • You had arthritis in your hands?

GO TO WORK IF…


Occupational therapy

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY

Is the assessment and treatment of

physical and psychiatric conditions, using

specific purposeful activity to prevent

disability and promote independent function

in all aspect of daily life.


Who do occupational therapists work with

Who do Occupational Therapists work with?

Children

Seniors

Adolescents

Adults


Where do occupational therapists work

Hospitals

Schools

Mental Health Facilities

Home Care

Personal Care Homes

Private Clinics

Rehabilitation Centers

Community Health Centers

Insurance Companies

Client Homes

Client Work Places

Where do Occupational Therapists work?


Occupational therapists are concerned with

Occupational Therapists are concerned with:

  • Person,

    Environment Occupation Interactions


Occupational therapy

POPULATION HEALTH

OCCUPATION

OP

ENVIRONMENT

PERSON


Occupational therapy

HUMANS AS OCCUPATIONAL BEINGS – PEOP MODEL

PERSON

(Intrinsic Factors)

ENVIRONMENT

(Extrinsic Factors)

OCCUPATION

Social Support

Physiological

Social & Economic

Systems

Cognitive

PERFORMANCE

Occupational

Performance &

Participation

Spiritual

Culture & Values

Built Environments &

Technology

Neurobehavioral

Natural Environments

Psychological

WELL BEING

QUALITY OF LIFE


Occupational therapy services for infants and children

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY SERVICES FOR INFANTS AND CHILDREN

Pediatric occupational therapy is

skilled treatment aimed to enable the child

to be as physically psychologically and

socially independent as possible.


How do they work

HOW DO THEY WORK

Occupational therapists works in close

partnership with….

  • Medical Team

  • Educational Team

  • Community Team

  • Family

    Together they have a shared responsibility for

    meeting children’s needs.


Multiple disability

MULTIPLE DISABILITY

When child has several different

disabilities we say, that He/She has multiple

disability

  • Multiplication of disability

  • 50% cerebral palsy – visual deficit

  • 13% cerebral palsy – auditory deficit

  • Mental retardation


Some examples of multiple disabilities are

SOME EXAMPLES OF MULTIPLE DISABILITIES ARE:

  • Deafblind (Visual impairment + hearing impairment)

  • Visual impairment + hearing impairment + mental retardation.

  • Visual impairment + mental retardation.

  • Cerebral palsy + mental retardation / hearing / speech / visual problems.


Occupational therapy

  • Hearing / Listening

  • Vision / Looking

  • Touch

  • Smell

  • Taste

  • Movement

  • Sensory integration

  • Cognitive

  • Social


Gross motor skills

GROSS MOTOR SKILLS:

Movement of the large muscles in the arms, and legs.

Abilities like

  • Rolling

  • Crawling

  • Walking

  • Running

  • Jumping

  • Hopping

  • Skipping


Fine motor skills

FINE MOTOR SKILLS:

Movement and dexterity of the small muscles in

the hand and fingers. Abilities like

  • In-hand manipulation

  • Reaching

  • Carrying

  • Shifting small objects


Sensory integration

SENSORY INTEGRATION

Sensory processing Ability like

  • Vestibular

  • Proprioceptive

  • Tactile

  • Visual

  • Auditory

  • Gustatory

  • Olfactory skills


Occupational therapy

Academic

Intellect

Learning

cognition

Daily

Living

Behavior

Activities

Auditory

Attention

Visual-

Perceptual

Language

Special

Development

Center

Perception

Skills

Functions

Motor

Ocular

Postural

Eye-hand

Motor

Adjustment

Coordination

Control

Development

Sensory

Reflex

Ability to

Body

Scheme

Screen Input

Maturity

Motor

Awareness of

Postural

Motor

Planning

Two Sides of Body

Security

Systems

Sensory

Olfactory

Auditory

Gustatory

Visual

Proprioception

Tactile

Vestibular

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM


Cognitive perceptual skills

COGNITIVE PERCEPTUAL SKILLS:

  • Abilities like

  • Attention

  • Concentration

  • Memory

  • Thinking

  • Reasoning

  • Problem solving

  • Concept of shape

  • Size and color


Occupational therapy

VISUAL MOTOR SKILLS:

Perception of visual information

Abilities like copying

MOTOR PLANNING SKILLS:

Ability to

Plan

Implement

Sequence motor tasks.


Occupational therapy

ORAL MOTOR SKILLS:

Movement of muscles in the

  • Mouth

  • Lips

  • Tongue

  • Jaw

  • Sucking

  • Biting

  • Chewing

  • Blowing

  • Licking


Occupational therapy

PLAY SKILLS:

Age appropriate purposeful play skills

SOCIO-EMOTIONAL SKILLS:

Ability to interact with peers and others.


Occupational therapy

ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING:

Self – care skills like daily

  • Dressing

  • Feeding

  • Bathing

  • Grooming

  • Toilet tasks


Occupational therapy

ENVIRONMENT MANIPULATION

Like handling

  • Switches

  • Door knobs

  • Phones

  • TV remote


Occupational therapy

HUMANS AS OCCUPATIONAL BEINGS – PEOP MODEL

CHILD

(Intrinsic Factors)

ENVIRONMENT

(Extrinsic Factors)

OCCUPATION

Social Support

Physiological

Social & Economic

Systems

Cognitive

PERFORMANCE

Occupational

Performance &

Participation

Spiritual

Culture & Values

Built Environments &

Technology

Neurobehavioral

Natural Environments

Psychological

WELL BEING

QUALITY OF LIFE


Case example

Case Example

Profoundly deaf, identified at 11 months

Developmental history of hypotonia, tactile defensiveness, motor overflow, poor eye contact. Slow learning rate, limited social interaction with peers

Referred by preschool teacher


On observation

On observation

Reduced proprioceptive perception

Weak bilateral coordination and motor planning

Reduce proximal trunk stability

Avoidance of crossing midline


Therapy implementation

Therapy Implementation

Successive approximation based on motor complexity

Increase visual and perceptual skill

Model matching side by side

Facilitate midline crossing

Guidance and support of motor plan


Occupational therapy

Influence of sensory integration procedures on language development.

Ayres AJ, Mailloux Z. Am J Occup Ther. 1981 Jun;35(6):383-90

The relationship between language development and sensory integration was explored through single case experimental studies of one female and three male aphasic children ranging in age from 4 years, 0 months to 5 years, 3 months. Three of the four children had received either speech therapy, special education specific to aphasia, or both, before starting occupational therapy. Inspection of rate of language growth before and after starting occupational therapy showed a consistent increase in rate of growth in language comprehensive concomitant with occupational therapy compared to previous growth rate.


Thank you

Thank you

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