The periodic table
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The Periodic Table. Chap. 6. Early Attempts at Organizing the Elements. Early Attempts at Organizing the Elements. Lavoisier’s list: 23 elements. Early Attempts at Organizing the Elements. Lavoisier’s list: 23 elements 1870’s : 70 known elements. Early Attempts at Organizing the Elements.

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The Periodic Table

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The Periodic Table

Chap. 6


  • Early Attempts at Organizing the Elements


  • Early Attempts at Organizing the Elements

  • Lavoisier’s list: 23 elements


  • Early Attempts at Organizing the Elements

  • Lavoisier’s list: 23 elements

  • 1870’s : 70 known elements


  • Early Attempts at Organizing the Elements

  • Lavoisier’s list: 23 elements

  • 1870’s : 70 known elements

  • Dobereiner’s triads


Halogen Triad

Cl

Br

I

mass

35.5 u

79.9 u

127 u

.00321

3.12

4.93

density

-101oC

-7oC

114oC

M.P.

-34 oC

59oC

185oC

B.P.


Self Check – Ex. 1

Ca

Sr

Ba

mass

40 u

88 u

137 u

1.55

?

3.62

density

842oC

?

727oC

M.P.

1500oC

1412oC

1845 oC

B.P.


Self Check – Ex. 1

Ca

Sr

Ba

mass

40 u

88 u

137 u

1.55

2.6

3.62

density

842oC

7770C

727oC

M.P.

1500oC

1412oC

1845 oC

B.P.


  • Early Attempts at Organizing the Elements

  • Lavoisier’s list: 23 elements

  • 1870’s : 70 known elements

  • Dobereiner’s triads

  • Newlands: Law of Octaves


  • Early Attempts at Organizing the Elements

  • Mendeleev’s Table


  • Early Attempts at Organizing the Elements

  • Mendeleev’s Table

  • produced simultaneously with Meyer


  • Early Attempts at Organizing the Elements

  • Mendeleev’s Table

  • produced simultaneously with Meyer

  • organized elements by increasing mass


  • Early Attempts at Organizing the Elements

  • Mendeleev’s Table

  • rearranged a few elements to match properties


  • Early Attempts at Organizing the Elements

  • Mendeleev’s Table

  • rearranged a few elements to match properties

  • left gaps for undiscovered elements


  • Early Attempts at Organizing the Elements

  • Mendeleev’s Table

  • rearranged a few elements to match properties

  • left gaps for undiscovered elements

  • described periodic law


Periodic Law

When arranged according to increasing atomic number, there is a repeating pattern of an element’s properties


  • The Modern Periodic Table


  • The Modern Periodic Table

  • Periods


  • The Modern Periodic Table

  • Periods

  • Groups/Families


  • The Modern Periodic Table

  • Periods

  • Groups/Families

  • Metals/Non-Metals/Semimetals


  • The Modern Periodic Table

  • Periods

  • Groups/Families

  • Metals/Non-Metals/Semimetals

  • Transition Metals/Inner Transition Metals/ Representative Elements


  • The Modern Periodic Table

  • Periods

  • Groups/Families

  • Metals/Non-Metals/Semimetals

  • Transition Metals/Inner Transition Metals/ Representative Elements

  • Physical States


  • The Modern Periodic Table

  • Periods

  • Groups/Families

  • Metals/Non-Metals/Semimetals

  • Transition Metals/Inner Transition Metals/ Representative Elements

  • Physical States

  • Naturally occurring elements


  • Periodic Trends


  • Periodic Trends

  • Valence Electrons


  • Periodic Trends

  • Valence Electrons

  • as you go down a group, the number of valence electrons __________


  • Periodic Trends

  • Valence Electrons

  • as you go down a group, the number of valence electrons __________

  • as you go across a period, the number of valence electrons __________


  • Periodic Trends

  • Atomic Radius


Atomic radius

Distance between the nucleus and the outermost electron.


  • Periodic Trends

  • Atomic Radius

  • as you go down a group, the atomic radius __________


  • Periodic Trends

  • Atomic Radius

  • as you go down a group, the atomic radius __________

  • as you go across a period, the atomic radius __________


Self Check – Ex. 2

Put the following atoms in order from smallest to largest radius

P Mg O Ca


  • Periodic Trends

  • Ionic Radius


Ion

An atom that has gained or lost an electron


  • Periodic Trends

  • Ionic Radius

  • as you remove an electron, the radius __________


  • Periodic Trends

  • Ionic Radius

  • as you remove an electron, the radius __________

  • as you add an electron, the radius __________


  • Periodic Trends

  • Ionic Radius

  • as you remove an electron, the radius __________

  • as you add an electron, the radius __________

  • the isoelectronic atoms that are the smallest have the most _______


Isoelectronic atoms

Atoms that have the same number of electrons.


Self Check – Ex. 3

Put the following in order of increasing radius

Cl- Ca2+ Ar K+


  • Periodic Trends

  • 1st Ionization Energy


Ionization Energy

The energy required to remove an electron.


  • Periodic Trends

  • 1st Ionization Energy

  • as you go down a group the ionization energy ________


  • Periodic Trends

  • 1st Ionization Energy

  • as you go down a group the ionization energy ________

  • as you go across a period the ionization energy ________


  • Periodic Trends

  • 1st Ionization Energy

  • as you go down a group the ionization energy ________

  • as you go across a period the ionization energy ________

  • as you remove each additional electron the ionization energy ________


Successive Ionization Energy


Self Check – Ex. 4

For what ionization will a large jump in ionization energy be observed with aluminum?


  • Periodic Trends

  • Electronegativity


Electronegativity

The ability of an atom to attract electrons in a chemical bond.


  • Periodic Trends

  • Electronegativity

  • electronegativity values are only reported for elements that bond.


  • Periodic Trends

  • Electronegativity

  • electronegativity values are only reported for elements that bond.

  • as you go down a group the electronegativity ________.


  • Periodic Trends

  • Electronegativity

  • electronegativity values are only reported for elements that bond.

  • as you go down a group the electronegativity ________.

  • as you go across a period the electronegativity ________.


Self Check – Ex. 5

Put these in order of decreasing electronegativity.

Sr O B Mg F


The End


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