Management of rheumatoid arthritis
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Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis. *Note: At least four criteria must be fulfilled for classification as RA. Autoimmune/Genetic factors?. Other factors. Silica Dust Exposure Increased risk for RA in smokers Infections?- (EBV) Dietary Factors- ? red meat

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Autoimmune genetic factors
Autoimmune/Genetic factors? classification as RA.


Other factors
Other factors classification as RA.

  • Silica Dust Exposure

  • Increased risk for RA in smokers

  • Infections?-(EBV)

  • Dietary Factors-

    ? red meat

    ? intake of fruit and oily fish may protect against RA

    (Mediterranean diet)

  • ?Interactions between genes and environment

    and stochastic factor contributions


Other nutrient factors
Other nutrient factors classification as RA.

  • Lower intakes of vitamin C, fruit and vegetables (high consumption of the antioxidants cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin) increased the risk of inflammatory polyarthritis


Articular and peri articular manifestations
Articular and Peri-articular classification as RA.Manifestations

  • Duration of signs and symptoms at more than 3 months was the strongest predictor of RA

  • Duration of signs and symptoms at more than 3 months was the strongest predictor of RA

  • Slow, insidious disease onset (70%)

  • Intermediate onset (20%)

  • Sudden acute onset (10%)

  • Complain of pain, stiffness, and swelling of their peripheral joints


Clinical findings
Clinical Findings classification as RA.

  • Examination of the joints reveals tenderness to palpation, synovial thickening, joint effusion, redness and warmth

  • May show decreased range of motion, ankylosis, and subluxation

  • Upper limb (50%)

    multiple joints affected (30%)

    hand only (25%)


Clinical findings1
Clinical Findings classification as RA.

  • Symmetrical joints involvement (85%)

  • Joints most commonly affected are-

  • The proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of the hands and wrists, followed by

  • The metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints of the feet, ankles, and shoulders.


Radiograph of the left hand. Soft tissue swelling is present around the MCP joints and wrist with diffuse narrowing of

MCP, PIP, and radiocarpal joint spaces.

Erosions are seen at the first CMC joint and distal ulna.

Periarticular osteopenia surrounds all of the articulations.


  • Radiograph of the left wrist reveals soft-tissue swelling with narrowing about the radial carpal joint associated with early reactive sclerosis involving the radial articular surface.

  • There is widening of the distal radial–ulnar joint and cysts are present within the carpal navicular and distal ulna.


  • An MRI of the left wrist of the same patient multiple bony erosions in the ulna, lunate, triquetrum, and distal radius.

  • Complete loss of articular cartilage is with slight ulnar shift

  • Exuberant synovial proliferation with inflamed synovium is seen to enter the large erosion within the distal ulna, illustrating the extensive synovitis that is missed on conventional radiography



Extra articular manifestations

Rheumatoid Nodules PIPs, and wrists seen in remitting seronegative symmetric

Anemia of chronic disease, lymphadenopathy

Vasculitis- sensorimotor neuropathy, nail-fold infarcts, leg ulcers, purpura, and digital gangrene

Extra-ArticularManifestations


Treatment of early arthritis
Treatment of Early Arthritis PIPs, and wrists seen in remitting seronegative symmetric

  • Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs- do not alter the course of the arthritis and its outcome

  • Glucocorticoids-

  • Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs

  • Methotrexate- favorable risk–benefit ratio, is (as in established RA) regarded to be the drug of

    first choice

  • hydroxychloroquine or sulfasalazine


Qol assessment
QOL assessment PIPs, and wrists seen in remitting seronegative symmetric

● Mobility

● Self-care

● Usual activities

● Pain/discomfort

● Anxiety/depression


Specific drugs methotrexate
Specific drugs: Methotrexate PIPs, and wrists seen in remitting seronegative symmetric

  • Anti folic acid- inhibition of proliferation of cells responsible for synovial inflammation

  • Decreases markers of inflammation, including the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and c-reactive protein (CRP)

  • Adverse Effects-low-dose weekly-7.5 to 10 mg

  • anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea(10%)

  • Hematologic-leukopenia (3%)

  • ? cirrhosis and liver failure (1/1000)

  • acute interstitial pneumonitis


“MTX is currently considered a first-line agent in the treatment of RA, and the “anchor drug” for combination therapy with other DMARDs and biologic agents. It has become the standard of care and the most widely used drug in the treatment of RA.”


Leflunomide
Leflunomide treatment of RA, and the “anchor drug” for combination therapy with other DMARDs and biologic agents. It has become the standard of care and the most widely used drug in the treatment of RA.”

  • A second choice DMARD to be used after methotrexate

  • has a long half-life (2 wks)

  • dose:20 mg daily

  • lefl unomide, sulfasalazine, and methotrexate reduced radiologic progression


Other drugs
Other Drugs treatment of RA, and the “anchor drug” for combination therapy with other DMARDs and biologic agents. It has become the standard of care and the most widely used drug in the treatment of RA.”

  • Antimalarials

  • Sulfasalazine

  • Tetracyclines

  • Gold Salts

  • D-penicillamine

  • Azathioprine

  • Cyclosporine


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