Change of plans
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Change of Plans:. Read Intro and Expt. 1 in article by Lee Brooks for Wed. Read Beth Loftus for Monday Nov. 29th. Memory. Short-Term “Working” Memory. Overview of Memory. Atkinson-Shiffrin Model. RETRIEVAL. ATTENTION. Sensory Memory. Short-Term Memory. Long-Term Memory.

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Change of plans

Change of Plans:

Read Intro and Expt. 1 in article by Lee Brooks for Wed.

Read Beth Loftus for Monday Nov. 29th


Memory

Memory

Short-Term “Working” Memory


Overview of memory

Overview of Memory

  • Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

RETRIEVAL

ATTENTION

Sensory Memory

Short-Term Memory

Long-Term Memory

Sensory Signals

REHEARSAL


Short term memory

Short-Term Memory

  • process by which we hold information “in mind”


Short term memory1

Short-Term Memory

  • process by which we hold information “in mind”

  • example: temporarily remembering a phone number


Characteristics of stm

Characteristics of STM

  • Capacity? Duration?

  • How could you measure these parameters?


Characteristics of stm1

Characteristics of STM

  • Limited Duration

    • Brown-Petersen Task:

      • subject is given a trigram (e.g. C-F-W) to remember

      • vocal rehearsal is prevented by counting backwards

      • recall accuracy tested as a function of retention interval


Characteristics of stm2

Characteristics of STM

  • STM decays over seconds


Characteristics of stm3

Characteristics of STM

  • Limited Duration

    • Brown-Petersen Task Interpretation: rapid loss of information in STM (over a period of seconds…much longer than sensory memory)


Characteristics of stm4

Characteristics of STM

  • Limited Capacity

    • How might you measure capacity?


Characteristics of stm5

Characteristics of STM

  • Limited Capacity

    • George Miller

    • Subject is given longer and longer lists of to-be-remembered items (words, characters, digits)


Characteristics of stm6

Characteristics of STM

  • Limited Capacity

    • George Miller

    • Subject is given longer and longer lists of to-be-remembered items (words, characters, digits)

    • Result: Subjects are successful up to about 7 items


Characteristics of stm7

Characteristics of STM

  • Limited Capacity

    • What confound must be considered ?!


Characteristics of stm8

Characteristics of STM

  • Limited Capacity

    • What confound must be considered ?!

    • Recalling takes time !


Characteristics of stm9

Characteristics of STM

  • Limited Capacity

    • What confound must be considered ?!

    • Recalling takes time !

    • It seems that the “capacity” of STM (at least measured in this way) depends on the rate of speech - faster speech leads to apparently larger capacity

    • Some believe capacity is “2 - 3 seconds worth of speech”


Characteristics of stm10

Characteristics of STM

  • Limited Capacity

    • “chunking”: grouping items into meaningful bundles increases STM capacity (in some sense)

      • Example: 111 333 666 333 777 222


Forgetting from stm

Forgetting from STM

  • Why do we “forget” from STM?

    • Does the memory trace decay?

      • not likely because with very small lists (like 1 item) retention is high for long intervals


Forgetting from stm1

Forgetting from STM

  • Why do we “forget” from STM?

    • Does the memory trace decay?

      • not likely because with very small lists (like 1 item) retention is high for long intervals

    • Instead, it seems that information “piles up” and begins to interfere


Forgetting from stm2

Forgetting from STM

  • Interference in STM is complex and specific


Forgetting from stm3

Forgetting from STM

  • Interference in STM is complex and specific

  • For example, severity of interference depends on meaning


Forgetting from stm4

Forgetting from STM

  • Interference in STM is complex and specific

  • For example, severity of interference depends on meaning

    • Subjects are given successive recall tasks with list items from the same category (e.g. fruits)

    • final list is of either same or different category - how is good is recall on this list?


Forgetting from stm5

Forgetting from STM

  • Accuracy rebounds if category changes


Coding in stm

Coding in STM

  • How is information coded in STM?


Coding in stm1

Coding in STM

  • How is information coded in STM?

  • Failures of STM give some clues:


Coding in stm2

Coding in STM

  • How is information coded in STM?

  • Failures of STM give some clues:

    • Capacity decreases with increasing length of to-be-remembered words


Coding in stm3

Coding in STM

  • How is information coded in STM?

  • Failures of STM give some clues:

    • Capacity decreases with increasing length of to-be-remembered words

    • phonological similarity effect - similar sounding items are harder to remember than different sounding items


Coding in stm4

Coding in STM

  • How is information coded in STM?

  • Failures of STM give some clues:

    • Capacity decreases with increasing length of to-be-remembered words

    • phonological similarity effect - similar sounding items are harder to remember than different sounding items

  • What does this suggest about coding in STM?


Coding in stm5

Coding in STM

  • Information in STM can be coded in an “auditory” (or subvocal) way

  • Try to sketch a model of STM with boxes and arrows


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