Citrate cycle cc exercise
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Citrate Cycle (CC) - exercise -. Vladimíra Kvasnicová. Citrate cycle is also called. citric acid cycle tricarboxylic acid cycle Krebs cycle electron transport chain. Citrate cycle is also called. citric acid cycle tricarboxylic acid cycle Krebs cycle electron transport chain.

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Citrate cycle cc exercise

Citrate Cycle (CC)- exercise -

Vladimíra Kvasnicová


Citrate cycle is also called

Citrate cycle is also called

  • citric acid cycle

  • tricarboxylic acid cycle

  • Krebs cycle

  • electron transport chain


Citrate cycle is also called1

Citrate cycle is also called

  • citric acid cycle

  • tricarboxylic acid cycle

  • Krebs cycle

  • electron transport chain


Citrate cycle cc exercise

The figure is adopted from the book: Devlin, T. M. (editor): Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2


Citrate cycle cc exercise

simplification:

The figure is found at http://www.sp.uconn.edu/~bi107vc/images/mol/krebs_cycle.gif (December 2006)


Citrate cycle cc exercise

citric acid

(2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylicacid)


Citrate cycle cc exercise

Hans Adolf Krebs

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1953 for his discovery of the citric acid cycle.


Citrate cycle cc exercise

= the other metabolic pathway

The figure is adopted from the book: Devlin, T. M. (editor): Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2


Citrate cycle

Citrate cycle

  • is a catabolic pathway

  • participates in anabolic reactions

  • belongs among oxidative processes

  • produces carbon dioxide


Citrate cycle1

Citrate cycle

  • is a catabolic pathway

  • participates in anabolic reactions

  • belongs among oxidative processes

  • produces carbon dioxide


Citrate cycle cc exercise

The figure is found at http://www.holon.se/folke/kurs/Distans/Ekofys/Recirk/Eng/regcyc5.jpg (December 2006)


Citrate cycle cc exercise

Amphibolic nature of thecitrate cycle

The figure is found athttp://www.tcd.ie/Biochemistry/IUBMB-Nicholson/gif/13.html


Enzymes of the citrate cycle

Enzymes of the citrate cycle

  • are found in all cells

  • are located in a mitochondrion

  • catalyze freely reverzible reactions

  • produce coenzymes which are regenerated in a respiratory chain


Enzymes of the citrate cycle1

Enzymes of the citrate cycle

  • are found in all cells

  • are located in a mitochondrion

  • catalyze freely reverzible reactions

  • produce coenzymes which are regenerated in a respiratory chain


Citrate cycle cc exercise

strongly exergonic reactions

The figure is found at http://www.metabolic-database.com/html/body_glutaminolysis__zeichnung3.html (December 2006)


The substances enter the cc

The substances enter the CC

  • acetyl~CoA

  • NAD+ and FAD

  • carbon skeleton of amino acids

  • GDP


The substances enter the cc1

The substances enter the CC

  • acetyl~CoA (→ 2 CO2)

  • NAD+ and FAD (→ NADH+H+ + FADH2)

  • carbon skeleton of amino acids

  • GDP (→ GTP)


Citrate cycle cc exercise

The figure is found at http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/images/590metabolism.gif (December 2006)


Choose products of the cycle

Choose products of the cycle

  • pyruvate

  • acetyl-CoA

  • NADH

  • FADH2


Choose products of the cycle1

Choose products of the cycle

  • pyruvate

  • acetyl-CoA

  • NADH(→ electron transport chain)

  • FADH2(→ electron transport chain)


Citrate cycle cc exercise

Products of the citrate cycle

The figure is found at http://www.hupe.hu/szerv/tanszekek/kio/im/oktat/SEJTBIO/citratkor/citr_summa_e.html (December 2006)


Energy released from oxidation of acetyl group in the cc is conserved in

Energy released from oxidation of acetyl group in the CC is conserved in

  • GTP

  • ATP

  • NADH

  • FADH2


Energy released from oxidation of acetyl group in the cc is conserved in1

Energy released from oxidation of acetyl group in the CC is conserved in

  • GTP(succinyl~Co → succinate)

  • ATP (GTP + ADP → GDP + ATP)

  • NADH (3x)

  • FADH2 (1x)


Citrate cycle cc exercise

The figure is found at http://lecturer.ukdw.ac.id/dhira/Metabolism/Respiration.html (December 2006)


Nad is reduced to nadh h in the reactions of the cc

NAD+ is reduced to NADH+H+ in the reactions of the CC

  • isocitrate → -ketoglutarate

  • -ketoglutarate → succinyl~CoA

  • succinate → fumarate

  • malate → oxaloacetate


Nad is reduced to nadh h in the reactions of the cc1

NAD+ is reduced to NADH+H+ in the reactions of the CC

  • isocitrate → -ketoglutarate

  • -ketoglutarate → succinyl~CoA

  • succinate → fumarate

  • malate → oxaloacetate


Citrate cycle cc exercise

„F“ →Fumarateand FADH2

The figure is found at http://lecturer.ukdw.ac.id/dhira/Metabolism/Respiration.html (December 2006)


Carbon dioxide co 2 is produced in the reactions of the cc

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced in the reactions of the CC

  • oxaloacetate + acetyl~CoA → citrate

  • citrate → isocitrate

  • isocitrate → -ketoglutarate

  • -ketoglutarate → succinyl~CoA


Carbon dioxide co 2 is produced in the reactions of the cc1

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced in the reactions of the CC

  • oxaloacetate(C4) + acetyl~CoA(C2) → citrate(C6)

  • citrate (C6)→ isocitrate (C6)

  • isocitrate (C6)→ -ketoglutarate(C5)

  • -ketoglutarate(C5)→ succinyl~CoA(C4)

    ! count number of carbons !


Citrate cycle cc exercise

The figure is found at http://lecturer.ukdw.ac.id/dhira/Metabolism/Respiration.html (December 2006)


Choose reactions that lead to net synthesis of cc intermediates anaplerotic reactions

Choose reactions that lead tonet synthesis of CC intermediates(= anaplerotic reactions)

  • pyruvate → acetyl~CoA (PDH)

  • pyruvate → oxaloacetate (pyruvate carboxylase)

  • aspartate → oxaloacetate(AST)

  • glutamate → -ketoglutarate(ALT)


Choose reactions that lead to net synthesis of cc intermediates anaplerotic reactions1

Choose reactions that lead tonet synthesis of CC intermediates(= anaplerotic reactions)

  • pyruvate → acetyl~CoA(PDH)

  • pyruvate → oxaloacetate(pyruvate carboxylase)

  • aspartate → oxaloacetate(AST) – the reaction consumes 2-oxoglutarate (+1 -1 = 0 net synthesis)

  • glutamate → -ketoglutarate(ALT)


Citrate cycle cc exercise

The figure is found at http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/tca-cycle.html (prosinec 2006)


Citrate cycle cc exercise

The most important anaplerotic reaction:

pyruvate carboxylase

The figure is found at http://www.bmb.leeds.ac.uk/illingworth/metabol/2120lec3.htm#krebs (December 2006)


The substances can be synthesized from intermediates of the cc

The substances can be synthesized from intermediates of the CC

  • amino acids

  • heme

  • glucose

  • fatty acids


The substances can be synthesized from intermediates of the cc1

The substances can be synthesized from intermediates of the CC

  • amino acids

  • heme

  • glucose

  • fatty acids


Citrate cycle cc exercise

Citrate cycleas a source of substrates used in a synthesis of other molecules

The figure is found athttp://www.tcd.ie/Biochemistry/IUBMB-Nicholson/gif/13.html


The enzymes regulate velocity of the cc

The enzymes regulate velocity of the CC

  • citrate synthase

  • isocitrate dehydrogenase

  • -ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

  • hexokinase


The enzymes regulate velocity of the cc1

The enzymes regulate velocity of the CC

  • citrate synthase

  • isocitrate dehydrogenase

  • -ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

  • hexokinase


The citrate cycle is inhibited by

The citrate cycle is inhibited by

  •  ATP/ADP

  •  NADH,  NAD+

  •  NADH/NAD+

  •  AMP


The citrate cycle is inhibited by1

The citrate cycle is inhibited by

  •  ATP/ADP

  •  NADH,  NAD+

  •  NADH/NAD+

  •  AMP


Regulation of the citrate cycle

Regulation of the citrate cycle

= by availability of substrates and consumption of produts


Citrate

Citrate

  • is formed from oxaloacetate and acetic acid

  • is transported to the cytoplasm if accumulates

  • acts as an inhibitor of glycolysis

  • activates synthesis of fatty acids


Citrate1

Citrate

  • is formed from oxaloacetate and acetic acid

  • is transported to the cytoplasm if accumulates

  • acts as an inhibitor of glycolysis

  • activates synthesis of fatty acids

    energy excess → it is stored in a glycogen and fat


Citrate cycle cc exercise

ATP

The figure is found at http://www.metabolic-database.com/html/body_glutaminolysis__zeichnung3.html (December 2006)


Citrate cycle cc exercise

see next presentation

The figure is adopted from the book: Devlin, T. M. (editor): Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2


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