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Citrate Cycle (CC) - exercise -. Vladimíra Kvasnicová. Citrate cycle is also called. citric acid cycle tricarboxylic acid cycle Krebs cycle electron transport chain. Citrate cycle is also called. citric acid cycle tricarboxylic acid cycle Krebs cycle electron transport chain.

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Citrate cycle cc exercise

Citrate Cycle (CC)- exercise -

Vladimíra Kvasnicová


Citrate cycle is also called
Citrate cycle is also called

  • citric acid cycle

  • tricarboxylic acid cycle

  • Krebs cycle

  • electron transport chain


Citrate cycle is also called1
Citrate cycle is also called

  • citric acid cycle

  • tricarboxylic acid cycle

  • Krebs cycle

  • electron transport chain


The figure is adopted from the book: Devlin, T. M. (editor): Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2


simplification: Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2

The figure is found at http://www.sp.uconn.edu/~bi107vc/images/mol/krebs_cycle.gif (December 2006)


citric acid Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2

(2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylicacid)


Hans Adolf Krebs Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1953 for his discovery of the citric acid cycle.


= the other metabolic pathway Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2

The figure is adopted from the book: Devlin, T. M. (editor): Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2


Citrate cycle
Citrate cycle Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2

  • is a catabolic pathway

  • participates in anabolic reactions

  • belongs among oxidative processes

  • produces carbon dioxide


Citrate cycle1
Citrate cycle Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2

  • is a catabolic pathway

  • participates in anabolic reactions

  • belongs among oxidative processes

  • produces carbon dioxide


The figure is found at Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2http://www.holon.se/folke/kurs/Distans/Ekofys/Recirk/Eng/regcyc5.jpg (December 2006)


Amphibolic nature Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2of thecitrate cycle

The figure is found athttp://www.tcd.ie/Biochemistry/IUBMB-Nicholson/gif/13.html


Enzymes of the citrate cycle
Enzymes of the citrate cycle Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2

  • are found in all cells

  • are located in a mitochondrion

  • catalyze freely reverzible reactions

  • produce coenzymes which are regenerated in a respiratory chain


Enzymes of the citrate cycle1
Enzymes of the citrate cycle Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2

  • are found in all cells

  • are located in a mitochondrion

  • catalyze freely reverzible reactions

  • produce coenzymes which are regenerated in a respiratory chain


strongly exergonic reactions Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2

The figure is found at http://www.metabolic-database.com/html/body_glutaminolysis__zeichnung3.html (December 2006)


The substances enter the cc
The substances enter the CC Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2

  • acetyl~CoA

  • NAD+ and FAD

  • carbon skeleton of amino acids

  • GDP


The substances enter the cc1
The substances enter the CC Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2

  • acetyl~CoA (→ 2 CO2)

  • NAD+ and FAD (→ NADH+H+ + FADH2)

  • carbon skeleton of amino acids

  • GDP (→ GTP)


The figure is found at Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/images/590metabolism.gif (December 2006)


Choose products of the cycle
Choose products of the cycle Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2

  • pyruvate

  • acetyl-CoA

  • NADH

  • FADH2


Choose products of the cycle1
Choose products of the cycle Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2

  • pyruvate

  • acetyl-CoA

  • NADH(→ electron transport chain)

  • FADH2(→ electron transport chain)


Products of the citrate cycle Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2

The figure is found at http://www.hupe.hu/szerv/tanszekek/kio/im/oktat/SEJTBIO/citratkor/citr_summa_e.html (December 2006)



Energy released from oxidation of acetyl group in the cc is conserved in1
Energy released from oxidation of acetyl group in the CC is conserved in

  • GTP(succinyl~Co → succinate)

  • ATP (GTP + ADP → GDP + ATP)

  • NADH (3x)

  • FADH2 (1x)


The figure is found at conserved inhttp://lecturer.ukdw.ac.id/dhira/Metabolism/Respiration.html (December 2006)


Nad is reduced to nadh h in the reactions of the cc
NAD conserved in+ is reduced to NADH+H+ in the reactions of the CC

  • isocitrate → -ketoglutarate

  • -ketoglutarate → succinyl~CoA

  • succinate → fumarate

  • malate → oxaloacetate


Nad is reduced to nadh h in the reactions of the cc1
NAD conserved in+ is reduced to NADH+H+ in the reactions of the CC

  • isocitrate → -ketoglutarate

  • -ketoglutarate → succinyl~CoA

  • succinate → fumarate

  • malate → oxaloacetate


„F“ conserved in→Fumarateand FADH2

The figure is found at http://lecturer.ukdw.ac.id/dhira/Metabolism/Respiration.html (December 2006)


Carbon dioxide co 2 is produced in the reactions of the cc
Carbon dioxide (CO conserved in2) is produced in the reactions of the CC

  • oxaloacetate + acetyl~CoA → citrate

  • citrate → isocitrate

  • isocitrate → -ketoglutarate

  • -ketoglutarate → succinyl~CoA


Carbon dioxide co 2 is produced in the reactions of the cc1
Carbon dioxide (CO conserved in2) is produced in the reactions of the CC

  • oxaloacetate(C4) + acetyl~CoA(C2) → citrate(C6)

  • citrate (C6)→ isocitrate (C6)

  • isocitrate (C6)→ -ketoglutarate(C5)

  • -ketoglutarate(C5)→ succinyl~CoA(C4)

    ! count number of carbons !


The figure is found at conserved inhttp://lecturer.ukdw.ac.id/dhira/Metabolism/Respiration.html (December 2006)


Choose reactions that lead to net synthesis of cc intermediates anaplerotic reactions
Choose reactions that lead to conserved innet synthesis of CC intermediates(= anaplerotic reactions)

  • pyruvate → acetyl~CoA (PDH)

  • pyruvate → oxaloacetate (pyruvate carboxylase)

  • aspartate → oxaloacetate (AST)

  • glutamate → -ketoglutarate (ALT)


Choose reactions that lead to net synthesis of cc intermediates anaplerotic reactions1
Choose reactions that lead to conserved innet synthesis of CC intermediates(= anaplerotic reactions)

  • pyruvate → acetyl~CoA(PDH)

  • pyruvate → oxaloacetate(pyruvate carboxylase)

  • aspartate → oxaloacetate(AST) – the reaction consumes 2-oxoglutarate (+1 -1 = 0 net synthesis)

  • glutamate → -ketoglutarate(ALT)


The figure is found at conserved inhttp://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/tca-cycle.html (prosinec 2006)


The most important anaplerotic reaction: conserved in

pyruvate carboxylase

The figure is found at http://www.bmb.leeds.ac.uk/illingworth/metabol/2120lec3.htm#krebs (December 2006)


The substances can be synthesized from intermediates of the cc
The substances can be synthesized from intermediates of the CC

  • amino acids

  • heme

  • glucose

  • fatty acids


The substances can be synthesized from intermediates of the cc1
The substances can be synthesized from intermediates of the CC

  • amino acids

  • heme

  • glucose

  • fatty acids


Citrate cycle CCas a source of substrates used in a synthesis of other molecules

The figure is found athttp://www.tcd.ie/Biochemistry/IUBMB-Nicholson/gif/13.html


The enzymes regulate velocity of the cc
The enzymes regulate velocity of the CC CC

  • citrate synthase

  • isocitrate dehydrogenase

  • -ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

  • hexokinase


The enzymes regulate velocity of the cc1
The enzymes regulate velocity of the CC CC

  • citrate synthase

  • isocitrate dehydrogenase

  • -ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

  • hexokinase


The citrate cycle is inhibited by
The citrate cycle is inhibited by CC

  •  ATP/ADP

  •  NADH,  NAD+

  •  NADH/NAD+

  •  AMP


The citrate cycle is inhibited by1
The citrate cycle is inhibited by CC

  •  ATP/ADP

  •  NADH,  NAD+

  •  NADH/NAD+

  •  AMP


Regulation of the citrate cycle
Regulation of the citrate cycle CC

= by availability of substrates and consumption of produts


Citrate
Citrate CC

  • is formed from oxaloacetate and acetic acid

  • is transported to the cytoplasm if accumulates

  • acts as an inhibitor of glycolysis

  • activates synthesis of fatty acids


Citrate1
Citrate CC

  • is formed from oxaloacetate and acetic acid

  • is transported to the cytoplasm if accumulates

  • acts as an inhibitor of glycolysis

  • activates synthesis of fatty acids

    energy excess → it is stored in a glycogen and fat


CCATP

The figure is found at http://www.metabolic-database.com/html/body_glutaminolysis__zeichnung3.html (December 2006)


see next presentation CC

The figure is adopted from the book: Devlin, T. M. (editor): Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2


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