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化学反应有快有慢: PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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化学反应有快有慢:. HCl + NaOH = NaCl + H 2 O. 千分之一秒即完成. H 2 + Cl 2 = 2HCl. 百分之一秒即完成. 几分钟见效. 救心丹. 若干年. 钢铁腐蚀. 煤、石油等化石燃料的形成. 几千万年以上. 一、化学反应速率. 定义:. 化学反应速率用 单位时间 (如每秒,每分,每小时)内反应物 浓度的减小 或生成物 浓度的增大 来表示。. ( 物质的量浓度 ). 计算式 :.

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3920038


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HClNaOHNaClH2O

H2Cl22HCl


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()

:


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N2 + 3H2 2 NH30. 6 mol/L

(0. 6 0 )mol/L

2s

c (NH3)

t

v (NH3) =

=

= 0.3mol/(Ls)


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4NH3+5O2 4NO+6H2O 530NO 0.3molNO

v(NO)=0.002mol/Ls

1O2 NH3?

v(O2)=0.0025mol/Ls

v(NH3)=0.002mol/Ls

2


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212

v(O2)=0.2mol/LS

v(SO3)=0.4mol/LS

v(SO2)=0.4mol/LS

1

  • 1L2moLSO21moLO2,2S,0.8moLSO22SSO2O2SO3.


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2

mA+nB=pCV(A)=amolL-1s-1,

V(B)=a/2molL-1s-1,

V(C)=amolL-1s-1,

2A+B=2C


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3

A + 3B = 2C + 2D

(1)(A)=0.3mol/(Ls )

(2) (B)=0.6mol/(Ls)

(3) (C)=0.4mol/(Ls)

(4) (D)=0.45mol/(Ls)

:

(1)>(4)>(2)=(3)

:


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,(

)1mol/L ,

A B C D


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2H2O2 = 2H2O+O2

:

25


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1

1024


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:

26

MnO2

FeCl3


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2


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3

4

5


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12L3A(g)+B(g)=2C(g)+D(g)A B 4mol10s A 0.12mol/(Ls)10sB

3.2mol


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22LXYZ

12minXYZ

2


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3,,:


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425100mLHCl 14.6g5.6g2s1.12L()4s

(1)2sFeCl2

(2)4sHCl

(3)2s4s

0.25mol/Ls

0.25mol/Ls

2s

2s4s


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2SO2+O2 2SO3

3H2+N2 2NH3

1


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12H2+O2 2H2O

2

3


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1

1

2

3


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1

2


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112SO2+O2 2SO3

10min

5min

2SO2

1O2

500101KPa,V2O5

SO26

O23

SO391


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2


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2

VV0

CPT

VV


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O

O


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1

2

1

2


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3

1

2


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1N2+3H2 2NH3

AN2H2

BN2H2NH3

C

DN2H2NH3

D


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2

A(g)+3B(g) 2C(g)( )

A.AC

B.ABC

C.nmolA3nmolB

D.ABC132

BC


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3.Ag+ 3Bg

2Cg

ACC

Bn molA3n molB

CABC

DABC1 3 2

E

F

G

ACF


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  • 4: P()+Q() R()+S()

  • PS

  • C. PQRS

  • D.

B


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5N2+3H2 2NH3

A.1NN,3HH

B.1NN,3HH

C.1NN,6NH

D.1NN,6NH

AC


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6,,: A()+3B() 2C()+D()( )

A. B.

C.B D.

BC


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=


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