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The Periodic Table. Chapter 6. A quest for accurate reproduction. J.W. Dobereiner – published his triad classification system (ex. Cl,Br,I similar chemical properties) 1860 Scientists agreed upon a method to measure mass Are masses related to elemental properties? John Newlands

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a quest for accurate reproduction
A quest for accurate reproduction
  • J.W. Dobereiner – published his triad classification system (ex. Cl,Br,I similar chemical properties)
  • 1860
    • Scientists agreed upon a method to measure mass
    • Are masses related to elemental properties?
  • John Newlands
    • Noticed every 8th element had similar properties
    • Law of octaves
dimitri mendeleev 1869
Dimitri Mendeleev - 1869
  • Organized the periodic table based on increasing atomic mass
  • Predicted the properties of unknown elements
    • Sc, Ge, Ga

P. 181 - Q 24, 25

henry moseley
Henry Moseley
  • Arranged elements based on the number of protons
  • Determined periodic law
    • Groups have similar properties
    • Properties change as you move across a period
    • Pattern repeats one period to the next

P.181 - Q – 26, 27

terminology
Terminology
  • Groups (Families) – (IUPAC labels 1-18)
  • Periods
  • Representative elements(1A – 8A)
    • Wide array of chemical and physical properties
    • Group number indicates number of valance electrons
  • Transition elements
  • Metalloids
  • Metal
  • Non metals

P. 181 - Q - 31

metals
Metals
  • Shiny, smooth
  • Good electrical and heat conductors
  • Malleable, ductile
  • Solid at room temp
  • Reactive Alkali’s and Alkaline’s (s block)
transition metals
Transition Metals
  • D and F (Inner transitional metals) block
  • Lanthanides and Actinides

P. 181 - Q 33, 34, 35 – P. 182 – 48, 49, 53, 54

non metals
Non-Metals
  • Most of p block
  • gases or brittle solids (Br)
  • Little luster
  • Poor conductors
  • Halogens very reactive
  • Noble Gases (Inert Gases) - extremely unreactive due to filled s and p sublevels

P. 181 – 28, 32

metalloids
Metalloids
  • Share properties of metals and non-metals
  • Heavy step line – B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, At
  • Found in p block

P. 181 - 29

atomic radius
Atomic Radius

Metals - Half the distance between adjacent nuclei in a crystal of an element.

Non Metals - Half the distance between bonded atoms of the same element (diatomic molecule).

atomic radius family trends
Atomic Radius – Family Trends

Atomic charge and occupied energy levels increase.

Occupied orbitals shield electrons in the outer most energy level from the pull of the nucleus.

Increases

slide15

Atomic Radius – Period Trends

decreases

  • Increasing positive charge pulls the valence electrons closer to the nucleus.
  • Shielding does not influence this trend because the effect is constant.

P. 181 - Q - 36 - P. 182 - Q - 50

ions atoms gain or lose electrons to have a complete set of valence electrons octet rule
Ions – Atoms gain or lose electrons to have a complete set of valence electrons (Octet Rule)

Empty outer orbital or energy level makes it smaller. Electrostatic repulsion decreases.

11 p  10 e

Na

Na+1

11 protons

11 electrons

11 protons

10 electrons

increased electrostatic repulsion
Increased electrostatic repulsion

Cl

17 Protons

17 Electrons

Cl1-

17 Protons

18 Electrons

ionic radius family trends
Ionic Radius – Family Trends
  • Principle energy levels increase in size.
ionic radius period trends
Ionic Radius – Period Trends

3

protons

2 electrons

4

protons

2 electrons

5

protons

2 electrons

6

protons

2 electrons

7

protons

10 electrons

8

protons

10 electrons

9

protons

10 electrons

Electron repulsion decrease

Electron repulsion decrease

P. 181 - Q - 41, 42 - P. 182 - Q -52 - P. 183 - Q - 64, 65

ionization energy energy needed for an atom to lose an electron
Ionization Energy – energy needed for an atom to lose an electron

Be  Be+  Be2+  Be3+

kilojoules/mol or kj/mol

1s2 1s2 1s2 1s1

2s2 2s1

slide21

1st ionization energies increase as you move across a period due to the increased attraction of the nuclear charge.

The stability of the filled sub level affects the ionization energy.

P. 181 – Q - 37, 38, 40 – P. 182 – Q – 55, 58 – P. 183 – Q – 67B

ionization energy family trends
Ionization Energy – Family Trends

Decreases as you move down a family. The further the electron from the nucleus the easier it is to remove.

P. 181 - Q - 39

electronegativity a measure of an atom s ability to attract an electron
Electronegativity – a measure of an atom’s ability to attract an electron

P. 181 - Q - 43, 44, 45

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