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PBL and educational innovation. Lars Peter Jensen Associate profesor Department of Control Engineering [email protected] Xiangyun Du Associate professor Department of Development and Planning [email protected] Overview. Reflection on university teaching and learning

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Pbl and educational innovation

PBL and educational innovation

Lars Peter Jensen

Associate profesor

Department of Control Engineering

[email protected]

Xiangyun Du

Associate professor

Department of Development

and Planning

[email protected]


Overview
Overview

  • Reflection on university teaching and learning

  • Why PBL - Challenges and changes

  • PBL history, understanding, philosophy and principles

  • Diversity of PBL practice



The way i was educated big class little room for individual ideas

’There is still one more seat in the wall’

The way I was educated Big class, little room for individual ideas

http://www.cnsphoto.com/



Memory is more important than application skills for high scores
Memory is more important than application skills for high scores…



Your learning stories
Your learning stories

Please spend 3 minutes sharing your learning stories with your neighbours


Am I teaching the same way I was taught?

Need for Innovation in Engineering Education



Can innovation be facilitated in this way

http://eby.cc/p/1961.htm

Can innovation be facilitated in this way?


5 minutes discussion
5 minutes’ discussion

What is your understanding of learning?

Based on your own experiences, what are the roles of university teaching in relation to learning?



Teaching learning1
Teaching = learning?

Yes, it’s actually true – you can get a degree by repeating everything the teacher says.

”We pretend that there is co-incidence between what is being taught and what is being learned” (Knud Illeriis, 1998)


Teaching = Learning?

“Teaching does not mean transferring knowledge but creating opportunities for …producing and constructing it.” (Paulo Freire)

(Karl Smith, UMN)




Two exaggerated views of learning and institutions
Two “exaggerated” views of learning and institutions

The top-down view:

There is a well-defined body of knowledge that should be passed on to students through the educational food-chain – from ministry plans to the student – National strategies, material databases, learning objects, curriculum.

Knowledge view: “Delivery or transmission of knowledge”

Ministry: National curriculum

University

Faculty

Department

Education (e.g. human centred informatics)

Lecturers

Student or groups of students


Two exaggerated views of learning and institutions1
Two “exaggerated” views of learning and institutions

The dispersion model – Aalborg’s view – focus on creation of knowledge

There is an ill-defined and massive body of knowledge that no individual or institution in itself can handle. Knowledge construction can be seen as diffusion of knowledge between different types of nodes in networks, where some nodes are more central than others. Knowledge is created, through transgressing boundaries, collecting, distributing and aggregating ”bits” of knowledge into regimes of competence

Knowledge view: “Chaotic diffusion of knowledge” and a focus on the creation of knowledge


Constructivism on learning
Constructivism on Learning

  • Learning is not a process of transferring knowledge to the students – as if the student is a passive receiver.

  • Much learning in institutions are directed towards a certain curriculum or canonized set of knowledge that the student must learn (or rather memorize)

  • Much assessment is a measurement of how much of this knowledge the students have memorized – not on their ability to produce new knowledge or to use their knowledge in real settings


Constructivism
Constructivism

  • Knowledge and learning is created by the students – not given to them.

  • Knowledge and learning should be about construction, producing new knowledge, solutions, theories and methods.

  • Learning and knowledge construction is facilitated by collaboration – dialogue, critical reviews, coordinating efforts.


Learning in Communities

of Practice

Participation

Informal

Unintended

Knowledge sharing


Learning to

become

Social learning

Integration of formal curriculum and informal learning

Life Long Learning

Original figure in Wenger 2004


Levels of understanding bloom

Bloom

Knowledge - memorize

Comprehension

Application

Analysis

Synthesis

Evaluation

Levels of understanding - Bloom

Surface learning

Deeper learning


Pbl learning principles
PBL Learning Principles

Learning Principles (Graff & Kolmos 2003)


A conceptualisation of pbl
A conceptualisation of PBL

  • PBL can be conceptualised as three central dimensions or processes that are stretched between teacher and participant control:

    • Problem – who defines and re-formulate?

    • Work Process – who chooses theory, methods and ways of working?

    • Solution – who owns the solution?



Need for change diversity of engineering competencies
Need for change: Diversity of engineering competencies

Scientific knowledge

  • Process competencies

  • Project management

  • Communication

  • Teamwork

  • Organization

Technical competencies


Need for change accreditations

Globalized context

Effective communication

Interdisciplinary knowledge

Designing and conducting experiments

Identity and solve applied science problems

Application of

mathematics and science knowledge

Analytical skills

Lifelong learning

Project management

Team work

Social, environmental, and ethical concerns

Intercultural competencies

Need for change:accreditations

Diverse capabilities

  • National Academy of Engineering, The Engineer of 2020, 2004

  • EUR-ACE (Accreditation of European Engineering Programmes and Graduates,http://www.feani.org/EUR_ACE/EUR_ACE_Main_Page.htm

  • - ABET: http://www.abet.org/


Need for change: industry expectations

Comparaison of capabilities taught at universities and required in professional life by young profesionals - Germany

(Becker 2006)


Ranking of capabilities important in professional life by young electrical engineers five years after graduation - Germany

(Becker 2006)


Need for change how to facilitate innovation role of university

Cortese 2003 young electrical engineers five years after graduation - Germany

Need for change:How to facilitate innovation – role of university?


Need for change: Challenges for the curricula young electrical engineers five years after graduation - Germany

In TRADITIONAL learning environment

What the student can learn within a given time

Student’s own

interest

Border of presently “known” knowledge

Border of “new” knowledge - ever expanding

Expected skills from industry

Social & global responsibilities


Educational changes in denmark
Educational changes in Denmark young electrical engineers five years after graduation - Germany

  • New study programs: enriched engineering disciplines

  • New expectations: broadened engineering skills and competences

  • New study forms: implementing student centred and work place-imitated learning environment (for example, PBL as an educational strategy)

New challenges and tasks for educators


PBL as a strategy for change: development and diversity of practice

McMaster 1968

Maastricht 1972

Linkoping 1972

Roskilde 72

Aalborg 74

  • Problem orientation

  • Interdisciplinarity

  • Exemplary learning

  • Participant directed

  • Group work

  • Problems as focus and stimulus for learning

  • Self directed learning

  • Student-centred and tutors as facilitators/guides

  • Team work


What is are pbl s
What is/are PBL(s)? practice

”PBL reflects the way people learn in real life; they simply get on with solving the problems life puts before them with whatever resources are to hand.”(Biggs 2003)


What is are pbl s1
What is/are PBL(s)? practice

“…. problem-based learning helps students to see that learning and life take place in contexts, contexts that affect the kinds of solutions that are available and possible.” (Savin-Baden 2003)


What is pbl
What is PBL? practice

  • ”Problem based learning is a pedagogical strategy for posing significant, contextualised, real world situations, and providing resources, guidance and instruction to learners as they develop content knowledge and problem-solving skills” (Mayo et. Al., 1993)


What is pbl1
What is PBL? practice

  • PBL is Student-Centred Learning

  • Where motivating and activating students is the prime concern

  • The point of departure for the learning process is an ill-structured real life problem


What is are pbl s2

http://www.cnsphoto.com/ practice

What is/are PBL(s)?

What do people do…

  • Some who claim to be doing might not be

  • Some are doing without realizing


Pbl learning principles1
PBL Learning Principles practice

Learning Principles (Graff & Kolmos 2003)


Variation

Ways of implementation practice

Problem solving techniques in the lecture

Problem Based Learning in subjects / at institutional level

Project Based Learning in subjects / at institutional level

Problem and Project Based Learning

Inquiry Based Learning

Outcome Based Learning

Modes of practice

Senario

Case

Transdisciplinary

Intercultural projects

Mega project

Individual / team

Online Based / Face to face

Variation


Diversity of PBL practice practice

Implementation

Moesby, E. 2004. "Reflections on making a change towards Project Oriented and Problem-Based Learning (POPBL)”, World Transactions on Engineering Technology Education (WTE&TE), UICEE, Monash University, Australia. Volume 3, No. 2, December 2004.


Problem solving skills in the lecture

Lectures practice

Literature

Questions

Answers

Seminars

Problem solving skills in the lecture


Project based learning

Subject 1 practice

Project 1

Subject 2

Project 2

http://www.cnsphoto.com/

Project Based Learning

Moesby 2004


Subject 1 practice

Subject 2

Project

Subject 1

Project

Subject 3

Subject 2

Innovations

Moesby 2004



Republic polytechnic rp visions
Republic Polytechnic (RP) – Visions practice

Learning outcomes:

Knowledgeable (understand, share, apply)

Inquirers and thinkers with ability to reason

Open minded, risk takers and decision makers

Communicators and negotiators,

Teamworkers

Caring and tolerant individuals with a balanced outlook and good values

Learning-enabled


Rp one day one problem
RP – ’one day – one problem’ practice

25 students per class – 5 teams of 5 students

A facilitator assigned for the day for each class

A problem given in the morning

Five different but related problems per week

Daily assessment supplemented by ’understanding tests’

49




Problem and Project Based Learning practice

- An innovation of the Aalborg Model

Study courses 7,5 ECTS

50%courses

Projectcourses 7,5 ECTS

One semester

Group examination

Individual examination

50%project

Project 15 ECTS

Model from The Aalborg PBL model - Progress, Diversity and ChallengesAnette Kolmos, Flemming K. Fink & Lone Krogh

1 ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) = 30 working hours





Pbl regional development
PBL – Regional development practice

PBL AAU as a good example of linking students with the local economy (OECD 2007, Puukka and Marmolejo 2008)

Students benefit from

Gaining transferable skills and authentic work experiences

University benefits from

gaining feedback and access to instructive cases and ideas for research and teaching

Improving graduate retention

Higher rate on-time finishing ( AAU 87% v.s 38% others in DK)

Lower drop-out rate (AAU lowest in DK)

Improved interdisciplinary collaboration among teaching staff

Enterprises benefit from

A clearer picture of what the university stands for and how the students might fit in as prospective employees




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