Slide 1 ### Lecture 07 DC and AC Load Line

DC biasing circuits

DC and AC equivalent circuit

Q-point (Static operation point)

DC and AC load line

Saturation Cutoff Condition

Compliance

and AC Load Line

Slide 2 ### Book Reference

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory by Robert Boylestad & Louis Nashelsky ( Prentice Hall )

Electronic Devices by Thomas L. Floyd ( Prentice Hall )

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 3 ### DC Biasing Circuits

- The ac operation of an amplifier depends on the initial dc values of IB, IC, and VCE.
- By varying IB around an initial dc value, IC and VCE are made to vary around their initial dc values.
- DC biasing is a static operation since it deals with setting a fixed (steady) level of current (through the device) with a desired fixed voltage drop across the device.

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 4 ### Purpose of the DC biasing circuit

To turn the device“ON”

To place it in operation in the region of its characteristic where the device operates most linearly, i.e. to set up the initial dc values of IB, IC, and VCE

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 5 ### Voltage-Divider Bias

The base-emitter junction of the transistor is forward biased through the voltage divider circuit set up by RB1 and RB2

(RE stabilizes the DC signals against variations in HFE)

Therefore RE is essential for DC biasing purposes

But the inclusion of RE limits the available AC voltage swing (max possible voltage swing will be limited to VCC-VE)

The bypass capacitor C3 is used to shorten RE in front of the AC signal while not affecting the DC bias conditions since it appears as an open circuit in front of DC bias

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 6 ### Graphical DC Bias Analysis

(1)

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 7 ### DC Load Line

- The straight line is know as the DC load line
- Its significance is that regardless of the behavior of the transistor, the collector current IC and the collector-emitter voltage VCE must always lie on the load line, depending ONLY on the VCC, RC and RE
- (i.e. The dc load line is a graph that represents all the possible combinations of IC and VCE for a given amplifier. For every possible value of IC, and amplifier will have a corresponding value of VCE.)
- It must be true at the same time as the transistor characteristic. Solve two condition using simultaneous equation
- graphically Q-point !!

What is IC(sat) and VCE(off) ?

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 8 ### Q-Point (Static Operation Point)

- When a transistor does not have an ac input, it will have specific dc values of IC and VCE.
- These values correspond to a specific point on the dc load line. This point is called the Q-point.
- The letter Q corresponds to the word (Latent) quiescent, meaning at rest.
- A quiescent amplifier is one that has no ac signal applied and therefore has constant dc values of IC and VCE.

EE3110 DC and AC Load Line

Slide 9 ### Q-Point (Static Operation Point)

- The intersection of the dc bias value of IB with the dc load line determines the Q-point.
- It is desirable to have the Q-point centered on the load line. Why?
- When a circuit is designed to have a centered Q-point, the amplifier is said to be midpoint biased.
- Midpoint biasing allows optimum ac operation of the amplifier.

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 10 ### DC Biasing + AC signal

When an ac signal is applied to the base of the transistor, IC and VCE will both vary around their Q-point values.

When the Q-point is centered, IC and VCE can both make the maximum possible transitions above and below their initial dc values.

When the Q-point is above the center on the load line, the input signal may cause the transistor to saturate. When this happens, a part of the output signal will be clipped off.

When the Q-point is below midpoint on the load line, the input signal may cause the transistor to cutoff. This can also cause a portion of the output signal to be clipped.

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 11 ### DC Biasing + AC signal

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 12 ### AC Load Line

The ac load line of a given amplifier will not follow the plot of the dc load line.

This is due to the dc load of an amplifier is different from the ac load.

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 13 ### AC Load Line

What does the ac load line tell you?

The ac load line is used to tell you the maximum possible output voltage swing for a given common-emitter amplifier.

In other words, the ac load line will tell you the maximum possible peak-to-peak output voltage (Vpp ) from a given amplifier.

(AC Saturation Current Ic(sat) , AC Cutoff Voltage VCE(off) )

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 14 ### AC Saturation Current and AC Cutoff Voltage

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 15 ### DC and AC Equivalent Circuits

Bias Circuit

DC equivalent circuit

AC equivalent circuit

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 16 ### The AC load line equation derivation

On the other hand the AC load line can be obtained by writing KVL for the circuit shown

ic(ac)rc+vce(ac)=0

Or alternatively

ic(ac)=-vce(ac)/(rc) (2)

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 17 ### The AC load line

The total collector current in the circuit is composed from the DC and AC components

Ic(total)=ICQ+iC(ac) (3)

The total collector emitter voltage is composed from DC and AC components as well

vce(total)=vCEQ+vce(AC) (4)

If we rearrange (3) and combine it with (2) and (4) we get

Ic(total)-ICQ=-1/RC*[vce(total)-vCEQ] (5)

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 18 ### The AC load line

Equation (5) represent the a linear relation between ic(total) and vce(total) which is the AC load line

When vce(total)=0, then the max collector current

Ic(total)max=ICQ+vCEQ/RC (6)

On the other hand when ic(total)=0, then

vce(total)=vCEQ+RC*ICQ (7)

The AC load line will have a slope of -1/RCwhere RC here is the AC resistance of the amplifier

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 19 ### The maximum optimum possible swing

In order to achieve the maximum possible AC swing then the Q point has to be in the middle of the AC load line

The above condition is based on the assumption that RB1 and RB2 are adjustable to meet the corresponding IB and VBE bias conditions

If we assume that the Q point is in the center of the AC load line then the max collector current is twice than the DC collector current

Ic(max)=2iCQ (8)

If we replace Ic(max) by Ic(total)max=ICQ+vCEQ/RC Then we may have the following relation

2ICQ=ICQ+VCEQ/RC or

ICQ=VCEQ/rC (9)

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 20 ### The maximum optimum possible swing

Analytical solution for both ICQ and VCEQ in terms of VCC, rCandREcan be obtained by solving the DC load line equation(10) and (9) i.e.

VCC=VCEQ+ICQ(RC+RE) (10)

VCC=VCEQ+VCEQ(RC+RE)/RC(11)

or

VCC=VCEQ(1+(RC+RE)/RC)) (12)

Rearranging (12) we get

VCEQ=VCC(RC/(2RC+RE)) (13)

If RC is the AC equivalent resistance and RC+RE is the DC equivalent resistance then

VCEQ=VCC(RAC/(RAC+RDC))

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 21 ### The maximum optimum possible swing

If we take RAC as a common factor the denominator and the numerator, then

VCEQ=VCC/(1+RDC/RAC)

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 22 ### The maximum optimum possible swing

Now the ICQ current can be found from (9) and (13) as

ICEQ=VCC (RC/(2RC+RE))*1/RC (14)

OR

ICEQ=VCC/(RAC+RDC) (15)

Graphically the Q point for maximum optimum swing can be found by following these steps

Constructing the DC load line

Drawing the AC load line by determining the points of IC(max)and VCE when IC=0

The operating conditions should be chosen so as not to exceed the maximum collector dissipation

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 23 ### AC- load line example

Refer to the examples in your note book

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 24 ### Using an infinte coupling capacitor

When a capacitor is used to connect the load the AC equivalent resistance became as

RAC=RC//RL

The maximum load current can be found from the current divider rule according to

ILmax=Icmax*RC/RL

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 25 ### Cutoff and Saturation Clipping

When determining the output compliance for a given amplifier, solve both equation (A) and (B). The lower of the two results is the compliance of the amplifier.

DC and AC Load Line

Slide 26 ### Example

For the voltage-divider bias amplifier shown in the figure, what is the ac and dc load line. Determine the maximum output compliance.

DC and AC Load Line