How to write abstract of english for science and technology
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How to Write Abstract of English for Science and Technology. 科技论文的结构 The structure of scientific paper. 题目 Title 作者 Author 作者单位和地址 Affiliation and address 摘要 Abstract 关键词 Key words 引言 Introduction 材料与方法 Materials and methods

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How to write abstract of english for science and technology

How to Write Abstract of English for Science and Technology


The structure of scientific paper

科技论文的结构The structure of scientific paper

  • 题目 Title

  • 作者 Author

  • 作者单位和地址 Affiliation and address

  • 摘要 Abstract

  • 关键词 Key words

  • 引言 Introduction

  • 材料与方法 Materials and methods

  • 结果 Results

  • 讨论 Discussion

  • 致谢 Acknowledgments (optional)

  • 引文 References

  • 附录 Appendices(optional)


The imrad article introduction methods results and discussion

The IMRAD article: Introduction, Methods, Results And Discussion

  • Abstract

  • What did I do in a nutshell? 

  • Introduction

  • What is the problem?

  • Materials and Methods

  • How did I solve the problem?

  • Results

  • What did I find out?

  • Discussion

  • What does it mean?


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

  • As a physical index to ex press the information on topography , topographic index is a very important parameter for many physically based hydrological models. This article analyzes the topographic index based on a small tested loess watershed. The topographic index is derived from DEMs of the watershed by using the single flow direction method. Results show that the spatial distribution of the topographic index has a high correlation with terrain distribution. Average topographic index variance has an exponential relationship with average slope variance. Frequency distribution of the topographic index shows a regular change with changed topography. The analysis of the topographic index variance can help us study catchment topography and hydrological similarity.

  • 基于人工降雨实验获取的黄土模拟小流域高解析度DEM 数据, 提取其不同发育阶段的地形指数, 分析了黄土小流域降雨侵蚀过程中地形指数的空间分异特征、平均地形指数变化规律及地形指数频率分布曲线特征。研究证明, 地形指数空间分布与地形呈现很强的相关性, 地形指数均值与坡度均值呈现对数变化关系, 地形指数频率分布图随地形变化呈现规律性变化。地形指数空间变异特征分析可为研究流域地形和流域水文相似性提供基础资料。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

摘要 Abstract

(1) 是一篇完整论文的一部分,但不是正文的部分。

(2) 它高度概括了正文叙述的内容,突出正文的重点, 是正文实质性内容的介绍。(读者通过阅读摘要,初步就能确定此文章对读者的重要性,究竟对读者从事的科研、教学有无参考价值,从而决定有否必要阅读正文。)

(3) 摘要虽然不是正文的一部分,但是它也不能脱离文章而单独印刷发行。


Abstract why is it important

Abstract:Why is it important?

  • 通常是你文章最先被阅读到的部分;

  • 如果你的摘要不好,你就无法吸引审者和读者的注意;

  • 论文审者通常仅仅根据你的摘要就对你的论文作出了初步判断;

  • A good Abstract is usually followed by a good paper. A bad abstract often indicates a bad paper.

Beijing – 10/11 December 2008

How to get published


What is an abstract

What is an abstract?

摘要的基本特点:

  • 通常为一段(偶多段), 应统一(unified)、连贯( coherent )、简明( concise )、独立( stand alone );

  • 应顺序体现论文的目的( purpose )、方法(method)、结果( results )、结论(conclusions)和建议( recommendations )等;

  • 各个部分之间联系和转换逻辑上要严谨( logical connections);

  • 不添加论文涉及范围以外的新信息,但可以总结( summarizes )本文


What is an abstract1

What is an abstract?

摘要的基本特点:

  • 能被更加广泛的读者(wide audience)理解;

  • 通常用被动( passive )语态,弱化作者,强化( emphasize )信息;

  • 格式要规范

    不用非共知共用的符号和术语

    一般不出现插图、表格,参考文献序号

    一般不用数学公式和化学结构式


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

英文摘要的内容

  • 英文摘要需要提供给读者一种信息,即该篇文章所包含的主要概念和讨论的主要问题。

  • 目前,使用最为广泛的一种摘要形式是信息型摘要即报道型摘要,也称资料型摘要。它用来报道论文的研究目的、方法、结果和结论。实质上,它是整篇论文的高度浓缩。篇幅较长,100~150词为宜。(不超过250词)


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

信息型摘要组成

  • 目的:即本文的目的或要解决的问题(What I want to do ?)。一般来说,一篇好的英文摘要,一开头就应该把作者本文的目的或要解决的主要问题非常明确地交待清楚。

  • 方法:即论文的主要工作过程及所采用的技术手段或方法,还包括众多的边界条件,使用的主要设备及仪器仪表等。对新的技术手段则应清楚的描述其基本原理、应用范围及所达到的精度、误差等。(How I did it ?)

  • 结果:结果应力求简明而富有信息性,可以是所获得的实验数据、实验结果及关系式,也可以是理论性成果,还可以是所关注的相关联系及观察到的主要现象。(What results did I get ?)

  • 结论:即阐明成果蕴含的意义,特别阐述这种意义是怎样与研究目的相联系。(What conclusions can I draw ?)(为了避免重复,有些摘要中结果和结论紧密结合在一起写。)


Informative abstract

Informative abstract

传统型或非结构式

  • 非结构式摘要或传统型,上述要素以一定的逻辑关系连续写出,不分段落或以明显的标识加以区分。

  • 结构式摘要,上述要素分段或以一定的标识给予区分。段落清晰、明了,便于编辑、审稿、阅读和计算机检索。

  • 结构式摘要根据包含上述要素的多少,可分为全结构式和半结构式摘要。

信息型摘要

半结构式

结构式

全结构式


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

信息型摘要例

Light Radiation From pulsed Discharges in Water

Abstract: Aim To study the characteristics of plasma radiation from pulsed discharges in water. Methods Pyrometer- oscilloscope system was sued to measure the brightness of the plasma radiation. The spark channel temperature and the distributions of the irradiance as a function of wavelength were obtained through a greybody radiation model.

Results For a stored capacitor energy of 312.5J, the spark channel temperature of 5×104 K was obtained with a peak current of 50kA. Most of the plasma radiation energy is distributed in the far ultraviolet region of the spectrum (10-200nm). Conclusion Radiation of plasma underwater corresponds to its electric characteristics. Ultraviolet radiation is one of the principal form of energy which is released from a pulsed discharge in water.


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

英文摘要撰写

英文摘要的ABC原则要求,即

A:准确(accuracy)

B:简练(brevity)

C:清晰(clarity)


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

英文摘要撰写

A:准确

英文摘要要能准确地传递科技信息和阐述学术观点。因此要求:

(1)文字表达要准确,词能达意,不要引起读者误解。 特别是科技文章不同于文科论文,它不要求词藻华丽,描写细腻。

(2)选词要准确,英文中同义词不少,例如:

safety与security两词,虽然都可以作安全讲,但其含义是有所不同的。safety是安全、平安的意思,可指自身安全、使用产品的安全等,如安全保险措施(safety precautions)、(汽车)安全带(safety belt)、安全阀(safety valve)、安全岛(safety island)、安全运行(safety operation)等。而security则是安全、保护、保障的意思,如养老金的保障、(防盗)安全措施、保安措施均用security一词,又如国家的防卫、保安部队、保安车(如押送金钱的)等。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

英文摘要撰写

B:简练

(1)写短句:英文科技文章写作时,经常使用复合句,有时一个子句套一个子句,整个一句话很长。在摘要中尽量写短句子,如果碰到长句子也尽量拆成几个短句子。例如下面一句话长达49个词:

What is really required therefore is a safe, reliable and inexpensive device, which can be inserted between the transmission line and the consuming apparatus, to convert the high voltage and low current of the economical transmission line into the low voltage and high current required by the consuming apparatus.

因此,在输电线路和用电设备之间,的确需要一种可以将经济的输电线路的高压小电流安全可靠,成本低廉地转换成用电设备所需的低压大电流的装置


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

英文摘要撰写

B:简练

可将其拆为两句话:

A safe, reliable and inexpensive device is really required between the transmission line and the consuming apparatus. It can convert the high voltage and low current of the economical transmission of the economical transmission line into the low voltage and high current required by the consuming apparatus.


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

英文摘要撰写

B:简练

(2)精炼: 许多简单句子只要能压缩,应尽量去掉多余的词,例如:

The English Language is about one-half redundant.

(英语中约有一半是多余的。)

可以更精炼为: English is half redundant.

精炼可以提高信息密度,对写英文摘要尤其重要。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

英文摘要撰写

C:清晰

(1)逻辑性与条理性强:写作要求逻辑性与条理性强,这同中文写作要求一样。摘要写得要通顺,不要影响读者的注意力,如:不必要的解释,不必要的重复、离题的内容等。

(2)忠实于正文:摘要撰写时,不能夸大研究成果,不能包含任何对正文内容的补充与修正,更不能包含正文中没涉及的内容,否则,不仅会造成读者的判断错误,也会影响作者的信誉。

(3)具体:写作过程中,摘要的叙述应尽可能具体,要避免模糊、笼统的写法。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

英文摘要撰写

C:清晰

简单地举两个例子说明:例如在核物理测量核反应截面时,应将结果写出为宜。

The cross-section was (6.25±0.26)×10-24cm2,

不要简单地写为The cross-section was measured.

又例:The continuous process requires 10% less raw material inventory and a 5% reduction in labor,就比

The continuous process will reduce costs, 要具体,要好。

(4)客观:摘要的叙述一定要客观,不应带有个人的主观因素,在摘要中,一般不宜使用perhaps, maybe, likely, possibly, probably等词;不应含有倾向性的评论。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

摘要的长度

一般信息性摘要要求是100~150个词。著名国际检索机构,如工程索引EI (Engineering Index)就是这样要求的。

考虑到摘要的独立于正文的特点,而又要求在有限的字数内写出符合要求的摘要,概括出几种缩短摘要的方法如下所述:


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

摘要的长度

1) 摘要中第一句话不要与题名重复

如,题名为

A calculation model of airborne radioactivity to environment for nuclear heating reactors

则摘要的第一句话不要写为

A calculation model of airborne radioactivity to environment for nuclear heating reactors is proposed on basis of the environment impact as assessment.

最好改为

The environment impact assessment is the important base of the calculation model.

又如,题名为

A wave function for the H center in LiF

则摘要的第一句话不要写为A wave function for the H center in LiF is proposed assuming a linear combination of appropriate molecular orbits. The…,

而最好改为

A linear combination of appropriate molecular orbital is assumed. The…。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

摘要的长度

2) 取消一些不必要的词句

如,in this paper, It is reported that…,Extensive investigations show that…,The author discusses…,This paper concerned with…,以及类似“本文所谈及的研究工作是对以前的工艺状况的改进”,“本研究工作已经通过专家鉴定”,“本研究成果已达到国际先进水平”等

3) 减少或取消不必要的背景信息

摘要只限表示新消息、新内容,应减少或取消对过去研究情况的描述,减少或取消不必要的背景信息。摘要也不应该包括作者未来的计划,如“有关×××方面的研究有待进一步开展”等。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

摘要的长度

4) 对物理量单位及通用词适当简化

如用3km代表three kilometers,用5s代替five seconds,用U.S.(美国)代表the United States,用U.K.(英国)代替the United Kingdom等。

5) 尽量避免重复单元采用简化措施

如在摘要中:

不采用 应采用

at a temperature of 250℃ to 300℃ at 250℃-300℃

at a high temperature of 1250℃ at 1250℃

at a high pressure of 15.4MPa at 15.4MPa


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

摘要的文体

撰写摘要,文体 (styles) 上应遵守上述ABC原则,摘要一般不分段。

1) 英文摘要不同于文章正文,应尽量使用短句子,但也应避免重复单词。如

In this paper, an enhancement, which is named as ABC, is proposed to try to get a more powerful object-oriented method.

应改为简单两句话:

An enhancement method, ABC, is proposed. It is a more powerful object-orients method.

并取消原句中不必要的In this paper。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

摘要的文体

2)在时态上,英文摘要多采用一般现在时和过去时。采用一般现在时来明研究的目的,描述研究的内容,得出结果与结论等。一般过去时用来描述作者过去某一时刻(时段)的发现,某一研究(观察、调查、实验、治疗等)过程等。

现在英文摘要中尽量少用现在完成时,更少用过去完成时等。这一点也与英文文章正文有不同之处。

The spatial differentiation of erosion intensity is one of important part of the research on sediment source of small watershed.

The erosion intensity of different part s of watershed model and dynamic variation of erosion intensity were studied.


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

摘要的文体

3)可用动词的情况应尽量避免应用动词的名词形式。

如应当用

Neutron flux distributions in the core were measured.

而不用

Measurements of neutron flux distributions in the core were made.

4)正确使用冠词,包括定冠词the和不定冠词a或an

5)应当用预置短语分开或用连字符断开名词组,避免使用长系列形容词或名词来修饰名词。

如用

The choloring-containing propylene-based polymer of high melt index,

而不用

The cholorine containing high melt index propylene based polymer


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

摘要的文体

6) 造句时尽量使动词靠近主语。

如用

The decol-orization was irreversible after 10 h of UV irradiation while the pigment was dissolved in dioxane.

而不用

The decol-orization in solutions of the pigment in dioxane, which were exposed to 10 h of UV irradiation, was on longer irreversible.

7)尽量应用重要的实事开头,避免短语或从句开头。

Fuel consumption in a reactor core was determined from data obtained experimentally.

而不用

From data obtained experimentally, fuel consumption in a reactor core was determined.


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

摘要的文体

8)删繁就简,应当用合适的短语代替子句,用合适的单词代替短语。

如用increased代替has been found to increase,用was代替was considered to be,用seemingly代替it would seem that,等等。

9) 摘要中涉及他人的工作或研究成果时,尽量列出其姓名。摘要中不允许引用参考文献标号如[X]或见Ref.[X]。

例如,在本章2.1.1节摘要例1中,……,最后一句话:

The examples … data from the St. Louis-based Regional Air Pollution Study.

又例如另一论文摘要:

A previous result [F. K. Hwang, Tamkang J.Math., 2 (1971), pp.39-44] showed that a minimax group…


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

摘要的文体

  • 摘要中尽量避免使用以第一人称We,I的形式为主语的句子,这以便于文摘刊物编辑加工和利用。例如,

  • In this paper, we provide a method calculating the stability of D8 algorithm

  • ….We discuss the application conditions of this method.

  • 可改为

  • A method calculating the stability of D8 algorithm is provided…. The application conditions of this method are discussed.

  • 应当注意,在国家标准GB6447-86文摘编写规则中指出,中文摘要中要用第三人称写法。应采用“对……进行了研究”、“报告了……现状”、“进行了……调查”,不必使用“本文”、“作者”等作主语。但这不能套到英文摘要上去,即句子不能直接由第三人称的动词如presents, discusses, provides,…开头,必须写成完整的句子,主语不能省略,且多采用被动式(例子可见上)。这样实际第三人称主语就被省掉了。这一点很重要。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

摘要的文体

11) 因为是科技文章的摘要,所以文词要纯朴,不需要很多华丽的修饰语句,不需要文学性的写法,

“Working against time on hot slag and spilled metal, in condition of choking dust and blinding steam, are conditions no maker would choose for his machine to operate in.”

12)摘要中单词的拼写应该统一,或用英国拼写法,或用美国拼写法,但不要混用。

如,或应用programme , colour ,或应用program, color,但不应在同一摘要里出现programme, color或program, colour。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

科技英语英文摘要典型语句-1Model Sentence in Abstract of English for Science and Technology

典型语句是指撰写摘要时经常用的语句。归纳如下:

1)作者观点和文章内容的常用语句

常用词:

deal with 论及,涉及

describe 阐述

explain 解释

illustrate 说明

introduce 引入,介绍

present 给出

report 给出

Example

Performance goals and measuring methods are briefly described.

简述了性能目标与测量方法。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

科技英语英文摘要典型语句-1Model Sentence in Abstract of English for Science and Technology

2)文章研究课题的常用语句:

常用词:

analyse , 分析

consider, 认为, 考虑

develop, 导出 (导出公式, 开发产品, 社会发展)

discuss, 讨论

investigate, 研究

state, 叙述, 阐述

study. 研究, 学习

Example

The main experimental problems are also analyzed with such ultra-low-frequency measurements.

用这种超低频测量也分析了主要的实验问题。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

科技英语英文摘要典型语句-1Model Sentence in Abstract of English for Science and Technology

3)文章涉及范围的语句:

常用词:

Consist of 由…… 组成

Contain 包含

Cover 包含,包括,涉及到

Include 包含,包括

Example

This article consists of four parts; introduction, theory, experiment, and conclusion.

本文由引言、理论、实验方法与结论四部分组成。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

科技英语英文摘要典型语句-1Model Sentence in Abstract of English for Science and Technology

4)综述与概括某领域研究课题的常用语句:

常用词:

Abstract 撰写摘要

Outline 概要叙述

Review 评述

Summary 简要概述,总结

Example

The experimental technique for the measurement of theses properties is outlined only.

对这些特性的实验技术仅做了概要叙述。

The design planning to be used is summarized in detail.

详细的总结了要采用的设计规则。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

科技英语英文摘要典型语句-1Model Sentence in Abstract of English for Science and Technology

5)文章重点的常用语句:

常用词:be, concentrate, focus, give, pay

常用句型:

Attention is concentrated on 重点是

There is a focus on, 重视,集中

Attention is paid to, 重视

The emphasis is on, 重点

Example

The research is focused on Visual analytics .

本文集中研究可视化分析。

More attention is paid to accuracy of DEMs.

很重视对DEM精度的研究。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

科技英语英文摘要典型语句-1Model Sentence in Abstract of English for Science and Technology

6)文章目的常用语句:

常用词:

Aim 目的

Objective 目标,对象,物体

Purpose 目的

Seek 寻求,追求

Example

The purpose for this study is to show that the buffer analysis mentioned before is promising.

本研究的目的就是要表明先前提到的缓冲分析有前途。

Visual analytics aims to combine the strengths of human and electronic data processing.

可视化分析主要目的是将人的长处和电子数据处理结合起来。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

科技英语英文摘要典型语句-2Model Sentence in Abstract of English for Science and Technology

典型语句是指撰写摘要时经常用的语句。归纳如下:

1)成果获取和开发的常用语句

常用词:

Achieve( 达到,实现), Construct( 绘制), derive( 推导), Design( 设计), Develop( 开发), Establish( 建立), record( 记录), Give( 给出), realize( 实现), Improve( 改进), provide( 提供), Obtain( 得到), produce( 生产), reduce( 缩短), solve( 解决)

Example

Analytical expressions for the error indicators are developed as multiple integrals.

误差指示因子的分析表达式以多重积分给出来。

The special equations are derived based on the first law of geography.

基于量子理论,推导出了这些特殊的方程式。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

科技英语英文摘要典型语句-2Model Sentence in Abstract of English for Science and Technology

2)观察和指示常用语句:

常用词:

Demonstrate 示范,证明

Exhibit 展示,展出

Find 发现

Indicate 指出

Observe 观察

Point out 指出了

show 表明

Example

Effects of improper operation on machine service life were demonstrated.

例证了不适当的操作对机器寿命的影响。

Application fields for these types of buffer analysis are indicated.

指出了这几种缓冲区分析的应用领域。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

科技英语英文摘要典型语句-2Model Sentence in Abstract of English for Science and Technology

3)运算和计量的常用语句:

常用词:

calculate, 计算

determine, 确定,测得

estimate, 估计,估算

measure 测量

Example

The error in each cell is carefully estimated.

仔细的估计了每个格网的误差。

The accuracy of DEMs is calculated.

计算了DEM的精度。

The earth-moon distance can be determined to an accuracy of ± 15cm by using this technique.

用这种技术测得的地球-月亮距离准确度可达±15cm.


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

科技英语英文摘要典型语句-2Model Sentence in Abstract of English for Science and Technology

4)应用与用途的常用语句:

常用词:

apply, 应用

use, 使用,用于

Example

The proposed method was applied to decrease error of DEMs.将研究所得的技术应用于降低DEM误差。

This geographical information system is used to management urban facility.这种方法被用来测量材料中应力的分布。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

科技英语英文摘要典型语句-2Model Sentence in Abstract of English for Science and Technology

  • 5)评估与比较的常用语句:

  • 常用词:

  • agree with, 与…… 一致,符合

  • assess, 评审

  • compare, 比较

  • evaluate 估算

  • Example

  • The calculated results agree with experimental result.

  • 计算结果与实验结果一致

  • These data are compared with those from the published experiments.将这些数据与已发表的实验结果进行了比较


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

科技英语英文摘要典型语句-2Model Sentence in Abstract of English for Science and Technology

6)实验与试验的常用语句:

常用词:

experiment,

Test

Example

The ascend rocket in the upper half of the Lunar Module was experimented hundreds of times.登月艇上半截的上升火箭,试验过几百次了。

The tests were carried out on a super computer.试验是在一台超级计算机上进行的。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

科技英语英文摘要典型语句-2Model Sentence in Abstract of English for Science and Technology

7)论证与依据的常用语句:

常用词:

base on, 基于…… ,根据

take as reference 作参考

Example

Based on simulation experiments of small watershed model, the erosion intensity was studied.基于小流域模型模拟实验,研究了侵蚀强度。

The DEM in 1:10,000 is taken as reference.1:10,000DEM作为参考。


How to write abstract of english for science and technology

The Road Taken or Not Taken


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