Modern classification sorts organisms into groups shows relationships among them
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Modern Classification sorts organisms into groups shows relationships among them. Phylogeny Systematics Cladistics. Classification and Diversity. Classification - tries to organize all living things into groups - show how they evolved from earlier life forms

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Modern classification sorts organisms into groups shows relationships among them

Modern Classificationsorts organisms into groupsshows relationships among them

Phylogeny

Systematics

Cladistics


Classification and diversity
Classification and Diversity

Classification

- tries to organize all living things into groups

- show how they evolved from earlier life forms

- show relationships to other present forms

- changes with new information

Early Systems

Aristotle - by environment: land, water, air

John Ray (1600s) - in related groups

- short description for each species


Linnaeus
Linnaeus

Carolus Linnaeus – Swedish botanist, 1700s

used physical appearance and structure

  • 7 taxa: from broad to specific

  • Kingdom – Phylum – Class – Order

  • - Family – Genus – Species

Binomial Nomenclature

- two names for each

Genus: group to which it belongs

species: 1-2 word description

Ex. Homo sapiens


Evidence for classification
Evidence for Classification

Many forms:

- physical appearance and structure (morphology)

- other present organisms

- fossils

- molecules, especially DNA, RNA, proteins

- embryology patterns

Various organizing diagrams


Evidence for evolutionary relationships
Evidence for Evolutionary Relationships

  • Physical appearance and structure

  • Resemblance to other organisms



Phylogeny and systematics
Phylogeny and Systematics

Taxonomy – sort and name organisms

Phylogeny - Evolutionary history of a group of

organisms - shows common ancestry

Systematics - combines taxonomy with evolution

- organized way to study diversity and relationships


Taxonomy sorting and naming
Taxonomy – sorting and naming

Species – individual type of organism

Genus – group of related species

Scientific Name = Genus & species

Family – related genera

Order – related families

Class – related orders

Phylum – related classes

Kingdom – related phyla

Domain – Three Domain System




Phylogeny compares structure
Phylogeny -compares structure trees

Homologous – similar structure, with adaptations

- shows common ancestry


Analogous structures trees

  • Evolved in similar environments

  • NOT shared ancestry


Cladistics
Cladistics trees

Tries to show evolutionary relationships based on physical traits shared by different groups of organisms


Cladograms
Cladograms trees

More shared traits

= more closely related

Derived character

– more recent branch from evolutionary line

Primitive character

- older, shared by more groups


Molecular systematics
Molecular Systematics trees

  • Compares molecules to find relationships


Student trees

Mushroom

Tulip

Common ancestor

Figure 15.9B

  • Ribosomal RNA

    • Have shown that fungi are more closely related to humans than to green plants


  • DNA trees– Compare genes and DNA sequences

  • - many similar sequences = closely related


Human trees

Chimpanzee

Gorilla

Orangutan

Common ancestor

Figure 15.9C

  • More shared genes = closer relationship


  • Molecular Clocks trees

    • Some regions of DNA or proteins

      • Change at a fairly consistent rate

      • Can date evolutionary events


Five kingdoms system
Five- Kingdoms System trees

(Classification is a work in progress!)

  • Prokaryotes are in one Kingdom – Monera

  • Eukaryotes are grouped in separate kingdoms

    • Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists


Six kingdom system
Six-Kingdom System trees

  • Bacteria are divided into two kingdoms, based on their chemical nature


Three domain system
Three Domain System trees

  • One domain for all eukaryotes

  • One domain for each of the two kinds of bacteria


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