Chromosomes
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Chromosomes. Chromosomes. Defined : Tightly coiled DNA Form when cells divide Chromosomes created for the new cells 2 Parts: 1) Chromatids : two identical parts of a chromosome 2) Centromere : Joins chromatids together. Karyotype. Female. Defined : Picture of an individuals chromosomes

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Chromosomes

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Chromosomes

Chromosomes


Chromosomes

Chromosomes

  • Defined: Tightly coiled DNA

  • Form when cells divide

    • Chromosomes created for the new cells

  • 2 Parts:

    • 1) Chromatids: two identical parts of a chromosome

    • 2) Centromere: Joins chromatids together


Chromosomes

Karyotype

Female

  • Defined: Picture of an individuals chromosomes

    • Help identify sex & chromosome defects

  • Size of final pair identifies sex

    • Same size: XX = female

    • Different size: XY = male

  • Normal human will have 46 chromosomes per cell

Male


Chromosomes

I’m seeing something that concerns me a little bit. I think we should consider a karyotype.

It’s hard to know. Once we examine the baby’s chromosomes we will have more information.

Oh no! Is it serious?


Chromosomes

Then I’ll suck up some of the baby’s cells from the fluid in the womb.

I’m gonna use ultrasound to help guide the needle. I don’t want to accidentally hit the baby.

Now that cells have been obtained, their chromosomes can be seen and photographed


Chromosomes

Under a microscope, the stained chromosomes are randomly scattered.


Chromosomes

The lab technician then arranged the chromosomes into pairs so the karyotype can be analyzed.


Down syndrome what s wrong

Down Syndrome: What’s Wrong?

  • Writing notation:

    • 1st: total chromosome #

    • 2nd: Sex chromosomes

    • 3rd: extra or missing

  • Down Syndrome

47,

XY,

+21


Chromosomes

Turner’s Syndrome: What’s Wrong?

  • Write the notation for Turner’s Syndrome.

  • 45, X, -23

  • or

  • 45, XO, -23


Chromosomes

Patau’s Syndrome: What’s Wrong?

  • Write the notation for Patau’s Syndrome.

  • 47, XY, +13


Klinefelter s syndrome what s wrong

Klinefelter’s Syndrome: What’s Wrong?

  • Write the notation for Klinefelter’s Syndrome.

    47, XXY, +23


Chromosomes

Diploid Cells

  • Diploid Cells = Cells with the full set of chromosomes

    • Paired chromosomes

  • Half of our chromosomes come from each parent (23 from each parent)

  • Somatic (non-sex) cells are diploid

  • Created by mitosis

  • Ex: Skin, Muscle, Nerve, Blood Cells


Chromosomes

Haploid Cells

  • Haploid Cells = Cells with ½ the total number of chromosomes

  • Gametes (sex cells) are the only haploid cells

    • Ex: Sperm, Egg, Pollen

  • Created by meiosis

    • Chromosome number reduced by 1/2

  • How do humans get 46 chromosomes?


Chromosomes

That one magical night!


Chromosomes

23 chromosomes

23 chromosomes

23 chromosomes

46

Chromosomes (diploid)

23 chromosomes

23 chromosomes

23 chromosomes


Chromosomes

Zygote divides from mitosis

Typical human has about 100 trillion cells

9 months of cells dividing later….


Chromosomes

Diploid Karyotype

Haploid Karyotype

Because diploid cells have the full set of chromosomes, you will see chromosomes paired.


Chromosomes

Rat

Karyotype

  • Is this a male or female rat?

male


Chromosomes

Rat

Karyotype

What is the diploid chromosome number?

42


Chromosomes

Rat

Karyotype

What is the haploid chromosome number?

21


Chromosomes

Rat

Karyotype

How many chromosomes would be in somatic cells?

42


Chromosomes

Rat

Karyotype

How many chromosomes would be in brain cells?

42


Chromosomes

Rat

Karyotype

How many chromosomes would be in gamete cells?

21


Chromosomes

Rat

Karyotype

How many chromosomes would be in egg cells?

21


Chromosomes

Rat

Karyotype

How many chromosomes would be in muscle cells?

42


Chromosomes

Rat

Karyotype

How many chromosomes would be in sperm cells?

21


Review

REview

  • 1) What is the difference between chromatin, chromatids, and chromosomes?

  • 2) Name the location where chromatids connect.

  • 3) Examine the karyotype.

    • What the haploid number?

    • Diploid number?

    • Somatic number?

    • Gamete number?

  • 4) Which of the following cells are created by mitosis?

    Skin Nerve Sperm Brain Kidney Stomach Pollen

  • 5) Which of the following cells are created by meiosis?

    Skin Nerve Sperm Brain Kidney Stomach Pollen

  • 6) Which of the following cells are haploid?

    Skin Nerve Sperm Brain Kidney Stomach Pollen

  • 7) Which of the following cells are diploid?

    Skin Nerve Sperm Brain Kidney Stomach Pollen


Review1

REview

  • 8) Left, Middle, or Right: Which karyotype is from a diploid cell?

  • 9) Left, Middle, or Right: Which karyotype could be from a muscle cell?

  • 10) Left, Middle, or Right: Which karyotype is from a sperm cell?

  • 11) Left, Middle, or Right: Which karyotype is from an egg cell?

  • 12) Left, Middle, or Right: Which two karyotypes are from a haploid cell?


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