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2 nd International Islamic Women Police Conference. Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing - Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany. Ursula Töttel, Bundeskriminalamt Wiesbaden Islamabad, 21 November 2011.

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2 nd international islamic women police conference

2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference

Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing - Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany

Ursula Töttel, Bundeskriminalamt Wiesbaden

Islamabad, 21 November 2011


Integrating women in mainstream policing impact on police culture and response in germany

Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing – Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany

Structure

  • History of integrating women in mainstream policing in Germany

  • The role and positioning of women and the attitudes of male police officers

  • Have women changed the masculine police culture?

  • Highlighting ways and means of integrating women in mainstream policing

2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference


Integrating women in mainstream policing impact on police culture and response in germany1

Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing – Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany

  • History of integrating women in mainstream policing in Germany (1)

    In 1903first criminal police assistants in Germany, working as „social police“. Responsibilites: children, female juveniles, prostitutes; separated from male police officers

    1919–1933 Weimar Republic Police should be perceived not only as a coercive force, but also as „friend and helper“; till 1924: in about 60 cities police assistants were hired

    1933-1945 Third Reich (Hitler Regime) The welfare agencies were resolved. The WKP (Female Criminal Police) were reorganised as a special youth police with new tasks.

2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference


Integrating women in mainstream policing impact on police culture and response in germany2

Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing – Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany

  • History of integrating women in mainstream policing in Germany (2)

    Since 1945 Western Germany: Concept of WKP (Female Criminal Police) was retained

    Eastern Germany: Take-over of all female police officers into the general police (uniformed & criminal police), women were fully integrated

    Further developments in Western Germany:

    1960‘s – 1970‘s: Change in the gender images as well as the police mission. A new women's movement demanded full equality. The WKP institutions were dissolved and WKP-women entered into the criminal police.

    1978 (Berlin) - 1990 (Bavaria): All German Bundesländer opened the uniformed police for women.

2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference


Integrating women in mainstream policing impact on police culture and response in germany3

Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing – Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany

  • The role and positioning of women and the attitudes of male police officers (1)

  • In Germany, one assumes a share of women in an executive capacity by approximately 10% (as of 2007). In the criminal police the share is much higher (BKA 31 %).

  • Just viewing the profession from outside, the masculine stereotyping of police work becomes clear. It is expected for police officers to have leadership skills, be able to defend their own interests, be physically strong and resilient under stress – qualities that are generally attributed to men.

2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference


Integrating women in mainstream policing impact on police culture and response in germany4

Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing – Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany

  • The role and positioning of women and the attitudes of male police officers (2)

  • Capacities that can be viewed as typical for women are also necessary for a successful job performance. These are mainly properties related to emotional work and social skills.

  • Men work very much stronger than women with police core functions of combating crime (prosecution, arrest and interrogation of offenders) and much less than women with the care of victims of sexual violence, with women, children and domestic disputes.

2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference


Integrating women in mainstream policing impact on police culture and response in germany5

Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing – Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany

  • The role and positioning of women and the attitudes of male police officers (3)

  • Women are just as suitable for the police as men.

  • Between men and women there are no differences in terms of motivations, interests, norms and values at work.

  • Police women are also as career-motivated as men (2007).

2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference


Integrating women in mainstream policing impact on police culture and response in germany6

Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing – Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany

  • The role, positioning and level of engagement of women and the attitudes of male police officers (4)

  • Women also need masculine qualities for police work (to be consistent and certain about the effects determined). The high masculinity - compared with other professions - was confirmed by 4 studies, however, describe themselves as strong women with feminine characteristics (studies 1999-2007 feminity - masulinity).

  • The attitudes of men towards women are more positive, the more they contact female police officers (Ohlemacher et al., 2002). Obviously, through concrete experiences, prejudices about difficulties in the use of women are reduced.

2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference


Staff percentage of male female staff at the bundeskriminalamt bka wiesbaden in 2011

Staff Percentage of male/female staffat the Bundeskriminalamt (BKA) Wiesbaden in 2011

2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference


Integrating women in mainstream policing impact on police culture and response in germany7

Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing – Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany

  • Have women changed the masculine police culture? (1)

    1903 - 1970’sFemale criminal police (WKP) were only responsible for special cases and not in competition with men > no impact on the police, but positive change of image in the public.

    1978 - 1990 all German Bundesländer have opened the uniformed police for women. Reasons: Recruitment problems and female emancipation > Police have to be integrated into society, supplemented by feminine characteristics > social image.

2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference


Integrating women in mainstream policing impact on police culture and response in germany8

Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing – Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany

  • Have women changed the masculine police culture? (2)

  • Limited change within the police by the women themselves, because women adapt to male police officers; police tasks remained.

  • A “critical mass” study outside the police in 2006 (Kramer/Konrad/Erkut) shows that at least three of ten members should be female, to ensure the positive effects of women’s participation.

2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference


Integrating women in mainstream policing impact on police culture and response in germany9

Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing – Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany

  • Have women changed the masculine police culture? (3)

  • The assumption, for example, the tone would change within the police throughout, has only a limited effect, because ultimately many women try adapting to the male-dominated business world.

  • Empirically it is shown that there is no change noted in the balance of power by the increased proportion of women (Wilz, S., 2003) > mostly men in higher positions.

  • Police is now more popular than in the seventies. Social change has begun.

2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference


Integrating women in mainstream policing impact on police culture and response in germany10

Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing – Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany

  • Have women changed the masculine police culture? (4)

  • Better working environment through joint units of men and women.

  • In police situations with extreme use of force female officers often have a de-escalation effect. Women contribute to the relaxation of the emergency situation and can resolve conflicts through the use of communication strategies.

2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference


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Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing – Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany

5. Highlighting ways and means of integrating women in mainstream policing

Activities of women’s club in the beginning of the 20th century.

In 1918 women got the universal suffrage and called for the establishment of a female police in whole Germany.

1987 Recommendation of the Conference of Ministers of Interior (Bund and Länder) in 1987:

  • The use of women in the police force is positive.

  • All initiatives for the employment of women in the police service are welcomed.

2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference


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Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing – Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany

5.Highlighting ways and means of integrating women in mainstream policing

1989 Network in the Netherlands "European Network of Policewomen (ENP)", founded as a charitable foundation with the support of the Dutch Ministry of Interior. Since 1992, with German participation, now with police officers from 23 European countries. www.enp.nl

1994 Equality Act of 1 September 1994: Implementation of equality of women and men while respecting the primacy of suitability, competence and professional performance. This includes increasing the proportion of women in a women's promotion plan, if women are employed in smaller numbers than men.

2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference


Integrating women in mainstream policing impact on police culture and response in germany13

Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing – Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany

5. Highlighting ways and means of integrating women in mainstream policing

  • Several model projects, e.g. in Rhineland-Palatinate (Ministry for culture, youth, women and family, Mainz, 2006) "Leadership in part-time" in country administration and police> What options are possible, which not, to overcome barriers.

  • Different gender equality plans with programmes and measures supporting women in police

  • Equal opportunity officers in all police authorities

2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference


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Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing – Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany

5. Highlighting ways and means of integrating women in mainstream policing

  • Current working group Bundeskriminalamt: “Compatibility family and job”

    The BKA - President has called in 2011 a working group chaired by a leading female police officer to improve the compatibility of family and career. The working group consists of 11 units which have to work out recommendations.

    Topics: Working part-time, career training, staff development, training, job sharing, child care, under-representation of women in leadership positions, tele-working, professional assessments for women.

2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference


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Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing – Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany

References

  • Blom, Dr., Herman (2010) „Polzei sucht Frau (in Führungspositionen) – jenseits von soften Maßnahmen gegen Gender-Diskriminierung in den Niederlanden, Beispiel für Deutschland? –

  • Blum, Bettina (2009) „Weibliche Polizei – soziale Polizei? Weibliche (Jugend)Polizei zwischen Demokratie und Diktatur 1927 – 1952“

  • Wilde, Annett & Rustemeyer, Ruth (2007) “Frauen in der Polizei: Chancen und Barrieren in einer männlichen Organisation”

  • Wilde, Annett & Rustemeyer, Ruth (2007) „Längst keine Neulinge mehr – Frauen in der Polizei“

  • Fritz, Theresa & Reutzel, S. & Widmann, S. (2007) „Verstärkung durch das ‚schwache’ Geschlecht? Zur Situation der Frauen in der Polizei Rheinland-Pfalz“

  • Wilz, Sylvia M. (2003), „Polizei und Gender; Bilder von Männern, Frauen und Polizei“

  • Walter, Bernd (2001) „Frauen in der Polizei – Ein emanzipatorischer Prozess zwischen der normativen Kraft des Faktischen und legislatorischer Notwendigkeit“.

  • Gütges, Karina (2001) „Studien aus den Länderpolizeien – Ergebnisse aus der Studie „Polizistinnen vor und nach der Wende“; ein Vergleich

  • Walter, Bernd (1999) “Frauen in Uniform – Oder: Die Schwierigkeit, eine Männerdomäne zu stürmen“

  • Klein, Christine (1999) „Frauen in der Polizei“

2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference


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Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing – Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany

Thank you for your attention

Questions?

Ursula Töttel

Detective Chief Inspector

Bundeskriminalamt Wiesbaden

(Federal Criminal

Police Office)

[email protected]

2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference


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