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Chapter 6 British Columbia to 1896. “ Horizons ”. Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “ The Oregon Territory ”. Russia first to reach Northwest coast Both U.S. and Britain also wanted the Oregon Territory HBC - wanted to continue fur trade U.S. - “ Manifest Destiny ” - settlement a priority

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chapter 6 british columbia to 1896
Chapter 6

British Columbia to 1896

“Horizons”

chapter 6 b c to 1896 the oregon territory
Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896“The Oregon Territory”
  • Russia first to reach Northwest coast
  • Both U.S. and Britain also wanted the Oregon Territory
  • HBC - wanted to continue fur trade
  • U.S. - “Manifest Destiny” - settlement a priority
  • 1830’s - American settlers travelled along Oregon Trail

Oregon Territory

manifest destiny
Manifest Destiny
  • In the United States in the 19th century, Manifest Destiny was the widely held belief that American settlers were destined to expand across the continent.
chapter 6 b c to 1896 the oregon territory1
Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896“The Oregon Territory”
  • Oregon Trail: only means to settle the west
  • Extremely difficult & dangerous journey
  • 1 in 10 settlers died along the way - some walked 2000 miles barefoot
  • Death often occurred due to cholera, poor sanitation & accidental gunshots
  • Contrary to popular belief, most native tribes helpful to settlers
chapter 6 b c to 1896 the oregon territory2
Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896“The Oregon Territory”
  • Oregon Trail: between 1843-1868, half a million settlers travelled west on the trail
  • Strange but true facts:
  • Many cholera victims were buried alive, because the wagon party was in a hurry (Donner Party)
  • A cow that accidentally wandered into a Sioux camp ignited a conflict that led to the death of many Sioux warriors & U.S. soldiers
chapter 6 b c to 1896 the oregon territory3
Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896“The Oregon Territory”
  • George Simpson - became governor of HBC in 1826 - biggest challenge was New Caledonia/Columbia territory
  • Russia, United States both interested in area
  • Simpson toured forts in Oregon territory - decided to establish a new post, Fort Vancouver
  • Chief Factor - John McLoughlin
  • Simpson ordered HBC employees to open up trade in Fraser Valley, expand networks in native peoples
  • 1827 - established Fort Langley

Fort Langley

fort langley
Fort Langley
  • Never a successful fur trading post
  • Traded in salmon in exchange for European goods
  • Salmon often went as ship food to resupply ships in Hawaii
chapter 6 b c to 1896 the oregon territory4
Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896“The Oregon Territory”
  • McLoughlin - fair & generous administrator, political realist
  • Arrested for murder of Robert Semple (Battle of 7 Oaks) - acquitted in 1818
  • Encouraged Americans to stay out of HBC territory - offered money & supplies to American settlers
  • Strong American presence in Oregon Territory by 1830’s
  • Russia: had fur-trade posts in Alaska, threatened to expand into Pacific Northwest
  • 1839 - agreement with HBC not to trade further south - HBC would supply Russian posts with food

John McLoughlin

chapter 6 b c to 1896 the oregon territory5
Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896“The Oregon Territory”
  • 1841 - Simpson toured area - not satisfied with fur trade - closed all coastal posts except Fort Simpson, designated HBC steamship Beaver as a ‘floating’ fur-trade post
  • McLoughlin furious
  • Situation worsened when McLoughlin’s son was killed in a brawl
  • Simpson recommended charge of ‘justifiable homicide’
  • McLoughlin developed hatred for both Simpson & HBC
  • Encouraged all settlers to move north of the Columbia River (U.S.)

“Beaver” - HBC steamship

mcloughlin s lega
McLoughlin’sLega
  • McLoughlin retired from HBC in 1845
  • Known as “Father of Oregon”, due to his kindness to American settlers
chapter 6 b c to 1896 the oregon territory6
Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896“The Oregon Territory”
  • Simpson worried that U.S. would take over territory
  • Ordered Chief Factor James Douglas to establish new depot on Vancouver Island
  • 1843 - Fort Victoria

James Douglas

chapter 6 b c to 1896 the colony of vancouver island to 1858
Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896“The Colony of Vancouver Island to 1858”
  • 1840’s - U.S. wanted to expand past 54° 40’ (Oregon Territory)
  • 1845 - President James Polk tried to negotiate with Britain
  • Both sides agreed to extend border along the 49th parallel to Pacific Ocean
  • Vancouver Island remained British
  • Fort Vancouver became U.S.
  • 1848: British government created the crown colony of Vancouver Island - HBC retained trade monopoly
  • New governor James Douglas
  • Actively encouraged British settlement

Vancouver Island

purchasing land on van is
Purchasing Land on Van. Is.
  • Recreating the English Class System
  • £1 an acre with a minimum of 20 acres
    • Current exchange rate (£1 = $1.55 CDN)
  • If more than 100 acres were purchased – must have 5 people to work the land
  • few settlers became land owners due to this system
  • most inhabitants were ex-HBC employees who bought up the valuable farm land
chapter 6 b c to 1896 the colony of vancouver island to 18581
Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896“The Colony of Vancouver Island to 1858”
  • 1856 - Douglas created Legislative Assembly - 7 elected representatives
  • Only property owners could vote - 40/450 citizens
  • Assembly could pass resolutions, but couldn’t enforce them - Douglas had final authority
  • Douglas also had to negotiate treaties with aboriginal peoples - approx. 30,000 living on island
  • They would surrender land to Europeans, but would retain hunting and fishing rights
  • Annual compensation to families each year
  • Douglas seemed to be ‘leasing’ land from aboriginal people - confirms their title?
  • Only treaties of this nature negotiated in B.C. in 19th century

Sir James Douglas

chapter 6 b c to 1896 the colony of vancouver island to 18582
Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896“The Colony of Vancouver Island to 1858”
  • English class system established - hierarchy
  • 1840’s - coal discovered near Nanaimo, diversified economy
  • Supplied Royal Navy, based out of Esquimalt harbour (still a base today)
  • Royal Navy played huge role in Fort Victoria society - officers invited to parties given by English landowners
  • Douglas married to Amelia Douglas, a Metis - not impressed with new ‘upper class’
  • She had 13 babies (7 died as infants)

Lady Amelia Douglas

assignment
Assignment
  • In an organizer, compare and contrast American and British attitudes towards the Oregon Territory. /3
  • Why did the British Government put restrictions on land purchasing?/2
  • What did the early government of Victoria have in common with Upper and Lower Canada before confederation? /2
  • Due at the end of the class.
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