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BIOMES chapter 2. Biomes are determined by rainfall and temperature. Biomes are large terrestrial regions characterized by similar climate, soil, plants, and animals regardless of their global locations.

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biomes are determined by rainfall and temperature
Biomes are determined by rainfall and temperature
  • Biomes are large terrestrial regions characterized by similar climate, soil, plants, and animals regardless of their global locations.
  • Differences in average annual rainfalland temperaturehelp us predict what type of desert, grassland or forest biome we would see in a given region- climate
your book discusses biomes and aquatic systems
Your book discusses biomes and aquatic systems
  • Tundra
  • Northern coniferous forests (boreal)
  • Deciduous forests
  • Grasslands
  • Deserts
  • Tropical forests
  • Shrublands (chaparrel)
  • Marshes
  • Open oceans
  • Estuaries
  • Mangroves
  • Swamps
  • Bogs
  • The region north of the tree line and near the Arctic Circle.
  • Unique area due to sun’s low angle for much of the year. Snowy owl
  • Has a cold, severe climate.
  • Few plants with a growing season of less than 60 days. Most are small and grow in marshy plains. Mosses and willows are common.
  • Little precipitation and low temperature.
  • Permafrost (frozen soil)
  • Animals such as caribou, arctic fox, reindeer and snowy owl.
northern coniferous forests taiga boreal
Northern Coniferous Forests(taiga, boreal)
  • (forest in Canada, northern US, parts of Europe and Asia) moose
  • Cool-cold with more precipitation and a longer growing season.
  • Lots of needle-leafed trees such as pine, spruce and fir.
  • Dense forests allow little sunlight to reach the ground. Little vegetation on the shady forest floor.
  • Big mammals such as elk, deer, moose, bear, and smaller animals such as weasels, snowshoe hares and lots of birds.
deciduous forests
Deciduous Forests
  • This is the biome we live in! White-tailed deer
  • Temperature is moderate, climate has warm, humid summers and cold winters. Rainfall is from 30-60 inches/year.
  • Dominated by broadleaf, deciduous trees and soil is rich with litter.
  • High productivity and diversity of organisms
  • Also called prairies, pampas (S. America), steppes (Russia, Asia, and Europe). badger
  • Are usually located in the interiors of continents.
  • Not enough precipitation to support tree growth, but enough for lots of grasses. Often used as farmlands.
  • Animals found are bison, antelope, coyote, badgers, prairie dogs, rattlesnakes. Have lots of insects.
  • Receive less than 10 inches of rainfall/year.
  • Plants and animals are adapted to meerkat save water.
  • Largest are the Sahara and Gobi. Sahara is getting larger due to drought, overgrazing and woodcutting for fuel.
  • Occur in the interior of continents.
  • Ecosystems are easily damaged and are severely affected by human activities such as irrigation, city growth, off-roading, and camping.
tropical forests
Tropical Forests
  • Located near the equator. No freezing and lots of moisture. toucan
  • Contain the greatest plant and animal diversity of all ecosystems.
  • Soils are thin and poor.
  • Largest rain forests occur in the Amazon Basin of S. A.
  • Major reservoirs for the production of atmospheric O2 and the consumption of CO2.
  • Many forests are being cleared for farming, grazing and lumber.
  • Covered by shrubby vegetation with hard, thick, waxy leaves that are jack rabbit drought resistant.
  • Climate is hot and dry in the summer and cool/cold, and wet in the winter.
  • Coast of California- chaparral
  • Subject to fire.
aquatic ecosystems
  • Freshwater – inland waters with few salts. Can be flowing (river) or standing (lake)
  • Springs → Brooks → Streams → Creeks → Rivers
  • Rivers
    • Erode banks
    • Carry sediment which get deposited and forms fertile soils.
standing waters
Standing Waters
  • The water is contained.
  • Puddles, ponds, bogs and lakes.
  • Salt concentrations may vary.
  • All are temporary because they will eventually fill with sediments (succession).
wetland areas
Wetland Areas
  • Swamps- shallow with trees and shrubs (Okefenokee Swamp)
  • Bogs- shallow with trees and shrubs. Accumulates a deposit of peat (dead plants) such as Sphagnum moss. Water is acidic and low in nutrients.
  • Marshes – non-woody plants (Florida Everglades)
  • Swamps and Marshes are areas of breeding and rearing habitats for insects, birds, amphibians, reptiles, shrimp
marine waters
Marine Waters
  • All the oceans are connected and form one large ecosystem.
  • Moderates earth’s climate by absorbing the sun’s energy in the summer and releasing it in the winters.
  • Dissolved salts/minerals increase with depth and nearness to the equator. Salinity is less near the shoreline.
  • Most productivity is along the continental shelf, shorelines and in the estuaries.
  • Small phytoplankton called diatoms produce a large part of earth’s oxygen.
  • Transitional zones between freshwater and open ocean.
  • Also called bays, coves, sounds, and are sheltered from direct wind and ocean waves.
  • Are very productive regions and are considered a nursery for many sea animals.
  • Chesapeake Bay in Virginia is the largest in the world.
  • Trees and shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics
  • Plants have physiological adaptations to overcome the problems of anoxia (low oxygen), high salinity and frequent tidal inundation
coral reefs rainforests of the sea
Coral Reefs “rainforests of the sea”
  • marine equivalent of tropical rain forests.
  • habitat for one-fourth of all marine species.
  • are underwater structures made from calcium carbonate secreted by corals which are tiny, living animals.
  • grow best in warm, shallow, clear, sunny and agitated waters.
which biome is it
Which Biome is it?
  • dominated by broad-leaf, deciduous trees?

Deciduous Forest

  • Contains the greatest biodiversity of all ecosystems

Tropical Forest

  • Nature’s nursery


  • The few plants are short and small



Water is contained

Standing waters such as…..

    • Lakes, ponds, bogs and puddles
  • The major photosynthetic ecosystem of the world


  • Lots of needle-leafed trees with little ground litter

Northern Coniferous Forest

  • Shallow wetland with trees


“Rainforests of the sea”

Coral reefs

do you remember
Do you remember…

What are the photosynthetic organisms in the oceans that produce a large part of earth’s oxygen?


The 2 factors that determine climate?

Temperature and rainfall

What is another name for frozen soil?


How humans are harming the deserts?

Off-roading, irrigation, city growth, camping

we live on a global spaceship
“We live on a global spaceship”
  • Explain what this statement means. Be specific!