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BIOMES chapter 2. Biomes are determined by rainfall and temperature. Biomes are large terrestrial regions characterized by similar climate, soil, plants, and animals regardless of their global locations.

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Biomes chapter 2

BIOMESchapter 2


Biomes are determined by rainfall and temperature
Biomes are determined by rainfall and temperature

  • Biomes are large terrestrial regions characterized by similar climate, soil, plants, and animals regardless of their global locations.

  • Differences in average annual rainfalland temperaturehelp us predict what type of desert, grassland or forest biome we would see in a given region- climate


Your book discusses biomes and aquatic systems
Your book discusses biomes and aquatic systems

  • Tundra

  • Northern coniferous forests (boreal)

  • Deciduous forests

  • Grasslands

  • Deserts

  • Tropical forests

  • Shrublands (chaparrel)

  • Marshes

  • Open oceans

  • Estuaries

  • Mangroves

  • Swamps

  • Bogs


Tundra
TUNDRA

  • The region north of the tree line and near the Arctic Circle.

  • Unique area due to sun’s low angle for much of the year. Snowy owl

  • Has a cold, severe climate.

  • Few plants with a growing season of less than 60 days. Most are small and grow in marshy plains. Mosses and willows are common.

  • Little precipitation and low temperature.

  • Permafrost (frozen soil)

  • Animals such as caribou, arctic fox, reindeer and snowy owl.


Northern coniferous forests taiga boreal
Northern Coniferous Forests(taiga, boreal)

  • (forest in Canada, northern US, parts of Europe and Asia) moose

  • Cool-cold with more precipitation and a longer growing season.

  • Lots of needle-leafed trees such as pine, spruce and fir.

  • Dense forests allow little sunlight to reach the ground. Little vegetation on the shady forest floor.

  • Big mammals such as elk, deer, moose, bear, and smaller animals such as weasels, snowshoe hares and lots of birds.


Deciduous forests
Deciduous Forests

  • This is the biome we live in! White-tailed deer

  • Temperature is moderate, climate has warm, humid summers and cold winters. Rainfall is from 30-60 inches/year.

  • Dominated by broadleaf, deciduous trees and soil is rich with litter.

  • High productivity and diversity of organisms


Grasslands
Grasslands

  • Also called prairies, pampas (S. America), steppes (Russia, Asia, and Europe). badger

  • Are usually located in the interiors of continents.

  • Not enough precipitation to support tree growth, but enough for lots of grasses. Often used as farmlands.

  • Animals found are bison, antelope, coyote, badgers, prairie dogs, rattlesnakes. Have lots of insects.


Deserts
Deserts

  • Receive less than 10 inches of rainfall/year.

  • Plants and animals are adapted to meerkat save water.

  • Largest are the Sahara and Gobi. Sahara is getting larger due to drought, overgrazing and woodcutting for fuel.

  • Occur in the interior of continents.

  • Ecosystems are easily damaged and are severely affected by human activities such as irrigation, city growth, off-roading, and camping.


Tropical forests
Tropical Forests

  • Located near the equator. No freezing and lots of moisture. toucan

  • Contain the greatest plant and animal diversity of all ecosystems.

  • Soils are thin and poor.

  • Largest rain forests occur in the Amazon Basin of S. A.

  • Major reservoirs for the production of atmospheric O2 and the consumption of CO2.

  • Many forests are being cleared for farming, grazing and lumber.


Shrublands
Shrublands

  • Covered by shrubby vegetation with hard, thick, waxy leaves that are jack rabbit drought resistant.

  • Climate is hot and dry in the summer and cool/cold, and wet in the winter.

  • Coast of California- chaparral

  • Subject to fire.


Aquatic ecosystems
AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS

  • Freshwater – inland waters with few salts. Can be flowing (river) or standing (lake)

  • Springs → Brooks → Streams → Creeks → Rivers

  • Rivers

    • Erode banks

    • Carry sediment which get deposited and forms fertile soils.


Standing waters
Standing Waters

  • The water is contained.

  • Puddles, ponds, bogs and lakes.

  • Salt concentrations may vary.

  • All are temporary because they will eventually fill with sediments (succession).


Wetland areas
Wetland Areas

  • Swamps- shallow with trees and shrubs (Okefenokee Swamp)

  • Bogs- shallow with trees and shrubs. Accumulates a deposit of peat (dead plants) such as Sphagnum moss. Water is acidic and low in nutrients.

  • Marshes – non-woody plants (Florida Everglades)

  • Swamps and Marshes are areas of breeding and rearing habitats for insects, birds, amphibians, reptiles, shrimp


Marine waters
Marine Waters

  • All the oceans are connected and form one large ecosystem.

  • Moderates earth’s climate by absorbing the sun’s energy in the summer and releasing it in the winters.

  • Dissolved salts/minerals increase with depth and nearness to the equator. Salinity is less near the shoreline.

  • Most productivity is along the continental shelf, shorelines and in the estuaries.

  • Small phytoplankton called diatoms produce a large part of earth’s oxygen.


Estuaries
Estuaries

  • Transitional zones between freshwater and open ocean.

  • Also called bays, coves, sounds, and are sheltered from direct wind and ocean waves.

  • Are very productive regions and are considered a nursery for many sea animals.

  • Chesapeake Bay in Virginia is the largest in the world.


Mangroves
Mangroves

  • Trees and shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics

  • Plants have physiological adaptations to overcome the problems of anoxia (low oxygen), high salinity and frequent tidal inundation


Coral reefs rainforests of the sea
Coral Reefs “rainforests of the sea”

  • marine equivalent of tropical rain forests.

  • habitat for one-fourth of all marine species.

  • are underwater structures made from calcium carbonate secreted by corals which are tiny, living animals.

  • grow best in warm, shallow, clear, sunny and agitated waters.


Which biome is it
Which Biome is it?

  • dominated by broad-leaf, deciduous trees?

    Deciduous Forest

  • Contains the greatest biodiversity of all ecosystems

    Tropical Forest

  • Nature’s nursery

    Estuary

  • The few plants are short and small

    Tundra


  • Water is contained

    Standing waters such as…..

    • Lakes, ponds, bogs and puddles

  • The major photosynthetic ecosystem of the world

    Oceans

  • Lots of needle-leafed trees with little ground litter

    Northern Coniferous Forest

  • Shallow wetland with trees

    Swamp

    “Rainforests of the sea”

    Coral reefs


Do you remember
Do you remember…

What are the photosynthetic organisms in the oceans that produce a large part of earth’s oxygen?

Diatoms

The 2 factors that determine climate?

Temperature and rainfall

What is another name for frozen soil?

Permafrost

How humans are harming the deserts?

Off-roading, irrigation, city growth, camping


We live on a global spaceship
“We live on a global spaceship”

  • Explain what this statement means. Be specific!


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