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Pharmacy Units - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Pharmacy Units. Measurements and Abbreviations There are others in the Student Handout book The most common ones (Must know) C=Celsius F =Fahrenheit G or gr =Gram Gr. = grain L= liter Ml= Milliliter Mg=Milligram Kg=Kilogram TBSP= tablespoon TSP= Teaspoon Gtt= drop.

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• Measurements and Abbreviations

• There are others in the Student Handout book

• The most common ones (Must know)

• C=Celsius

• F =Fahrenheit

• G or gr =Gram

• Gr. = grain

• L= liter

• Ml= Milliliter

• Mg=Milligram

• Kg=Kilogram

• TBSP= tablespoon

• TSP= Teaspoon

• Gtt= drop

• Metric System- began in France in 1795.

• Denotes basic units of measurement in 6 main areas:

• Mass - Gram

• Length- meter

• Time- second

• Volume- liter

• Electricity- Ampere (named after the french mathematician , Andre Marie Ampere) is a unit of electric current.

• Temperature – Kelvins

• Conversions are made based on factors of ten:

• 1000 micrograms = 1 milligram, 1000 milligrams= 1 gram

• US Customary Units and British Imperial Systems medicine due to its factor of ten basis. Used in most countries in the world

• Development over centuries in the British Isles and later in the US colonies

• Formally standardized in 1824

• Still use in the US and Great Britain Today; however, almost all scientific applications use the metric system or the SI system (Système international d'unités )

• Avoirdupois system is a subsystem of weights in the US and British Systems based on the pound.

• 1 pound = 16 ounces = 480 grams (actually slightly less)

• The follow is a list of weights and their metric equivalents medicine due to its factor of ten basis. Used in most countries in the world

• 1 Grain = 65 mg (5 gr aspirin =325 mg) exception: 1 gr of thyroid, phenobarbital, codeine and nitroglycerin) is 60 mg

• 2.2 pound = 1 kilograms

• 1 Dram (symbolized by ʒ) = 3.9 g and 1 f ʒ = 3.9 ml

• 1 ounce = 28.35 g and 1 fl. Oz= 30 ml

• 1 pint= 16 ounces and 16 fl.oz= 480 ml

• 2 pints= 32 ounces and 32 fl.oz = 1 quart = 960 ml=0.96 liters

• 8 pints= 128 ounces and 128 fl.oz=4 quarts = 1 gallon = 3.8 liters

• 20 drops = 1 ml

Apothecary System medicine due to its factor of ten basis. Used in most countries in the world

• Apothecary system is a system of weights and measure used in Europe during the 18th century by physicians and pharmacist (apothecary)

• Is a subset of the British Imperial systems

• The following are important to remember in pharmacy

• The follow is a list of weights and their metric equivalents

• 1 Grain = 65 mg (5 gr aspirin =325 mg) exception: 1 gr of thyroid, phenobarbital, codeine and nitroglycerin) is 60 mg

• 1 Dram (symbolized by ʒ) = 3.9 g and 1 f ʒ = 3.9 ml

• The following is the symbols for the ounce, scruple, and the pound

• The apothecary pounds is 12 ounces. The apothecary ounce is the troy ounce which is the 31.1 grams. Precious metals and gemstones are weighted in troy ounces. Gold=Au, Silver= Ag, Platinum = Pt

Conversions between units medicine due to its factor of ten basis. Used in most countries in the world

• To make a unit conversion note:

• units 1 X (unit 2/unit 1) = unit 2

• Or use the formula in the book:

• Unit you have X (the unit you need/unit you have)= the unit you need

Electrolytes and their units medicine due to its factor of ten basis. Used in most countries in the world

• In medicine electrolytes are reported in the following units: mg/dl and mEq/l

• Electrolytes that are reported in mEq/l are sodium, potassium.

• Normal sodium in humans is 135 mEq/l to 145 mEq/ml

• Low plasma sodium is called hyponatremia and high is hypernatremia.

• Na is the chemical symbol for sodium. NaCL is the symbol for sodium chloride

• Sodium is important in the human body. The level of sodium determines the amount of volume that the body holds and hence its blood pressure.

• Sodium is a major determinate of electrically conductivity of nerves and muscles.

• A typical order you may see in the hospital for sodium chloride is : infuse NS 500 ml once over 30 minutes

• A typical prescription you may see for sodium chloride is: NaCl tablet 1 gram TID.

• Normal plasma potassium is 4 mEq/l to 5 mEq/l medicine due to its factor of ten basis. Used in most countries in the world

• Low plasma potassium is hypokalemia and high is hyperkalemia

• The chemical symbol for potassium is K

• High potassium levels (greater than 9 mEq/l) is very dangerous and can be fatal (death is by cardiac asystole)

• Potassium is important in conducting electrical impulses in nerves and muscles, like sodium.

• Potassium is also responsible for setting the resting cell membrane potential and hence is responsible for the responsiveness of nerve or muscle to “fire” an impulse.

• A prescription for KCL you may see in the retail pharmacy is: Kdur 10® 1 tablet PO BID. Kdur® is the brand name for potassium chloride . Its is a wax cover tablet that is designed to mask the intense metallic taste of KCL. You may see Kdur ® listed as 10 meq or (750 mg).

• KDur ® is normally given to patients that are taking potassium depleting diuretics like furosemide.

Calcium medicine due to its factor of ten basis. Used in most countries in the world

• The chemical symbol for calcium is Ca

• Calcium and Magnesium are divalent cations, meaning they have a charge of +2.

• Sometimes you will see them write as Ca +2 and Mg +2

• Normal plasma calcium is 8 mg/dl to 10 mg/dl

• Calcium is important in the body for blood pressure, cardiac function and blood clotting.

• Calcium is the main determinate for muscular contractility.

• Calcium is important for bone and teeth integrity.

• A Prescription you may see for calcium in the community setting is Oscal® 1 tablet TID. Oscal is calcium carbonate 1,250 mg (500 mg of elemental calcium). Oscal D is calcium carbonate with vitamin D 1,250 mg (500 mg elemental calcium) with 200 IU of vitamin D (ergocalciferol)

Treatment for Hyperkalemia medicine due to its factor of ten basis. Used in most countries in the world

• Hyperkalemia is a life threatening electrolyte abnormality. (usually potassium level of 9 meq/l or higher is fatal)

• Calcium is sometimes used to reverse effects of high blood potassium on the heart. An order you may see is

• 1 gram calcium gluconate IVP X 2

• 0.3 gram calcium chloride IVP X 2

• You may also see the following as well:

• Insulin R 10 units IVP

• 25 ml of D50W IVP

• Albuterol 0.083% : 3 ml nebulized every 15 minutes X 3

• Kayexelate 60 ml orally X2

More less Commonly used abbreviations medicine due to its factor of ten basis. Used in most countries in the world

• AV= arteriovenous

• BE= Barium enema

• BUN= Blood urea nitrogen

• CC= chief complaint

• Cl liq= clear liquids

• DAT= diet as tolerated

• Dim= one- half or SS

• EENT= eye, ear, nose and throat

• ERT- estrogen replacement therapy

• FE= iron

• GTT= glucose tolerance test

• HRT= Hormone replacement therapy

• Hx= history medicine due to its factor of ten basis. Used in most countries in the world

• IM= intramuscular injection

• I&O= intake and output

• KCL= potassium chloride

• mEq= milliequivalent

• MOM= milk of magnesia

• NPO= nothing by mouth

• PRN = as needed

• PO= by mouth

• Qs= sufficient quantity

• SSE= soap suds enema medicine due to its factor of ten basis. Used in most countries in the world

• Sum= take

• TPN= total parenteral nutrition

• Ung= ointment