Pharmacy units
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Pharmacy Units. Measurements and Abbreviations There are others in the Student Handout book The most common ones (Must know) C=Celsius F =Fahrenheit G or gr =Gram Gr. = grain L= liter Ml= Milliliter Mg=Milligram Kg=Kilogram TBSP= tablespoon TSP= Teaspoon Gtt= drop.

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Pharmacy Units

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Pharmacy units

Pharmacy Units

  • Measurements and Abbreviations

    • There are others in the Student Handout book

      • The most common ones (Must know)

        • C=Celsius

        • F =Fahrenheit

        • G or gr =Gram

        • Gr. = grain

        • L= liter

        • Ml= Milliliter

        • Mg=Milligram

        • Kg=Kilogram

        • TBSP= tablespoon

        • TSP= Teaspoon

        • Gtt= drop


Measurement systems

Measurement Systems

  • Metric System- began in France in 1795.

    • Denotes basic units of measurement in 6 main areas:

      • Mass - Gram

      • Length- meter

      • Time- second

      • Volume- liter

      • Electricity- Ampere (named after the french mathematician , Andre Marie Ampere) is a unit of electric current.

      • Temperature – Kelvins

      • Conversions are made based on factors of ten:

        • 1000 micrograms = 1 milligram, 1000 milligrams= 1 gram


Pharmacy units

  • Metric System is the preferred system in science and medicine due to its factor of ten basis. Used in most countries in the world

  • Nano =0.000000001

  • Micro = 0.000001

  • Milli =0.001

  • Centi=0.01

  • Deci = 0.1

  • Kilo=1,000


Pharmacy units

  • US Customary Units and British Imperial Systems

    • Development over centuries in the British Isles and later in the US colonies

    • Formally standardized in 1824

    • Still use in the US and Great Britain Today; however, almost all scientific applications use the metric system or the SI system (Système international d'unités )

    • Avoirdupois system is a subsystem of weights in the US and British Systems based on the pound.

      • 1 pound = 16 ounces = 480 grams (actually slightly less)


Pharmacy units

  • The follow is a list of weights and their metric equivalents

    • 1 Grain = 65 mg (5 gr aspirin =325 mg) exception: 1 gr of thyroid, phenobarbital, codeine and nitroglycerin) is 60 mg

    • 2.2 pound = 1 kilograms

    • 1 Dram (symbolized by ʒ) = 3.9 g and 1 f ʒ = 3.9 ml

    • 1 ounce = 28.35 g and 1 fl. Oz= 30 ml

    • 1 pint= 16 ounces and 16 fl.oz= 480 ml

    • 2 pints= 32 ounces and 32 fl.oz = 1 quart = 960 ml=0.96 liters

    • 8 pints= 128 ounces and 128 fl.oz=4 quarts = 1 gallon = 3.8 liters

    • 20 drops = 1 ml


Apothecary system

Apothecary System

  • Apothecary system is a system of weights and measure used in Europe during the 18th century by physicians and pharmacist (apothecary)

  • Is a subset of the British Imperial systems

  • The following are important to remember in pharmacy

    • The follow is a list of weights and their metric equivalents

      • 1 Grain = 65 mg (5 gr aspirin =325 mg) exception: 1 gr of thyroid, phenobarbital, codeine and nitroglycerin) is 60 mg

      • 1 Dram (symbolized by ʒ) = 3.9 g and 1 f ʒ = 3.9 ml

      • The following is the symbols for the ounce, scruple, and the pound

      • The apothecary pounds is 12 ounces. The apothecary ounce is the troy ounce which is the 31.1 grams. Precious metals and gemstones are weighted in troy ounces. Gold=Au, Silver= Ag, Platinum = Pt


Conversions between units

Conversions between units

  • To make a unit conversion note:

  • units 1 X (unit 2/unit 1) = unit 2

  • Or use the formula in the book:

    • Unit you have X (the unit you need/unit you have)= the unit you need


Electrolytes and their units

Electrolytes and their units

  • In medicine electrolytes are reported in the following units: mg/dl and mEq/l

  • Electrolytes that are reported in mEq/l are sodium, potassium.

    • Normal sodium in humans is 135 mEq/l to 145 mEq/ml

      • Low plasma sodium is called hyponatremia and high is hypernatremia.

      • Na is the chemical symbol for sodium. NaCL is the symbol for sodium chloride

      • Sodium is important in the human body. The level of sodium determines the amount of volume that the body holds and hence its blood pressure.

      • Sodium is a major determinate of electrically conductivity of nerves and muscles.

      • A typical order you may see in the hospital for sodium chloride is : infuse NS 500 ml once over 30 minutes

      • A typical prescription you may see for sodium chloride is: NaCl tablet 1 gram TID.


Pharmacy units

  • Normal plasma potassium is 4 mEq/l to 5 mEq/l

    • Low plasma potassium is hypokalemia and high is hyperkalemia

    • The chemical symbol for potassium is K

    • High potassium levels (greater than 9 mEq/l) is very dangerous and can be fatal (death is by cardiac asystole)

    • Potassium is important in conducting electrical impulses in nerves and muscles, like sodium.

    • Potassium is also responsible for setting the resting cell membrane potential and hence is responsible for the responsiveness of nerve or muscle to “fire” an impulse.

    • A prescription for KCL you may see in the retail pharmacy is: Kdur 10® 1 tablet PO BID. Kdur® is the brand name for potassium chloride . Its is a wax cover tablet that is designed to mask the intense metallic taste of KCL. You may see Kdur ® listed as 10 meq or (750 mg).

    • KDur ® is normally given to patients that are taking potassium depleting diuretics like furosemide.


Calcium

Calcium

  • The chemical symbol for calcium is Ca

  • Calcium and Magnesium are divalent cations, meaning they have a charge of +2.

  • Sometimes you will see them write as Ca +2 and Mg +2

  • Normal plasma calcium is 8 mg/dl to 10 mg/dl

  • Calcium is important in the body for blood pressure, cardiac function and blood clotting.

  • Calcium is the main determinate for muscular contractility.

  • Calcium is important for bone and teeth integrity.

  • A Prescription you may see for calcium in the community setting is Oscal® 1 tablet TID. Oscal is calcium carbonate 1,250 mg (500 mg of elemental calcium). Oscal D is calcium carbonate with vitamin D 1,250 mg (500 mg elemental calcium) with 200 IU of vitamin D (ergocalciferol)


Treatment for hyperkalemia

Treatment for Hyperkalemia

  • Hyperkalemia is a life threatening electrolyte abnormality. (usually potassium level of 9 meq/l or higher is fatal)

  • Calcium is sometimes used to reverse effects of high blood potassium on the heart. An order you may see is

    • 1 gram calcium gluconate IVP X 2

    • 0.3 gram calcium chloride IVP X 2

    • You may also see the following as well:

      • Insulin R 10 units IVP

      • 25 ml of D50W IVP

      • Albuterol 0.083% : 3 ml nebulized every 15 minutes X 3

      • Kayexelate 60 ml orally X2


More less commonly used abbreviations

More less Commonly used abbreviations

  • AMA= against medical advice

  • AV= arteriovenous

  • BE= Barium enema

  • BUN= Blood urea nitrogen

  • CC= chief complaint

  • Cl liq= clear liquids

  • DAT= diet as tolerated

  • Dim= one- half or SS

  • EENT= eye, ear, nose and throat

  • ERT- estrogen replacement therapy

  • FE= iron

  • GTT= glucose tolerance test

  • HRT= Hormone replacement therapy


Pharmacy units

  • Hx= history

  • IM= intramuscular injection

  • I&O= intake and output

  • KCL= potassium chloride

  • mEq= milliequivalent

  • MOM= milk of magnesia

  • NPO= nothing by mouth

  • PRN = as needed

  • PO= by mouth

  • Qs= sufficient quantity


Pharmacy units

  • SSE= soap suds enema

  • Sum= take

  • TPN= total parenteral nutrition

  • Ung= ointment


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