More Ocean Indices. Paul Knight, Richard Grumm and Paul Roundy PSU Meteorology and NWS State College. Pacific Decadal Oscillation PDA/NPO Oceanic Index. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation ( PDO ) is an index of long-term variability of the sea-surface temperatures of the North Pacific Ocean.
Paul Knight, Richard Grumm and Paul Roundy
PSU Meteorology and NWS
Rogers, J.C., 1997: North Atlantic storm track variability and its association to the North Atlantic Oscillation and climate variability of Northern Europe. Journal of Climate10(7), 1635-1647.
Hurrell, J.W., 1995: Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation and relationships to regional temperature and precipitation. Science269, 676-679.
Wallace, J.M. and David S. Gutzler, 1981:"Teleconnections in the Geopotential Height Field during the Northern Hemisphere Winter" Mon. Wea. Review,109,784-812.
Teleconnections Linking Wolrdwide Climate Anomalies. ed. M.H. Glantz, R.W. Katz and N. Nicholls, Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Rogers, J.C. and H. Van Loon, 1979: "The Sea-Saw in winter temperatures between Greenland and Northern Europe. Part II. Some atmospheric and oceanic effectes in middle and high latitudes." Mon Wea. Rev. ,107, 509-519.
A 30-60 day oscillation in the coupled Tropical ocean-atmosphere system
An eastward progression of enhanced and suppressed convection
Low level and upper level wind patterns show distinct anomalies
Strong year to year variability in MJO that is related to ENSO cycleThe MJO - A Description
Some of the accumulating
mass, slows propagation
Propagation speed: less than 20 ms-1
Simplified Madden-Julian Oscillation Composite ocean-atmosphere system
OLR from A.J. Matthews, 2000.
Decay Region ocean-atmosphere system
Active ocean-atmosphere system
Enhanced ocean-atmosphere system
Deflected ocean-atmosphere system
Cold air outbreak enhancement ocean-atmosphere system
GCM simulation of convection (CPS) ocean-atmosphere system
SST variations not well simulated
Change of phase speed from eastern to western hemispheres
Handling of very low wave number
increased vertical resolution
better parameterization of:
surface convergenceMJO - A Modeler’s Nightmare
Chang, Lim, 1988: Kelvin wave-CISK ocean-atmosphere system
Chen, Murakami, 1988: Development and life-cycle of the Indian monsoon
Crum, Dunkerton, 1994: CISK and evaporational-wind feedback
Ferranti, Palmer, Molteni and Klinker,1990: Tropical and extra-tropical interactions associated with 30-60 day oscillation
Gray,1988: Seasonal frequency variations in the 40-50 day cycleMJO Research