Building the economic case for community capacity-building
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Building the economic case for community capacity-building Presented at the ‘People with disabilities participating fully and safely in the community’ conference, held by the National Disability Authority in Dublin 13 th October 2011 Annette Bauer [email protected]

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Building the economic case for community capacity building

Building the economic case for community capacity-building

Presented at the ‘People with disabilities participating fully and safely in the community’ conference, held by the National Disability Authority in Dublin 13th October 2011

Annette Bauer

[email protected]

Personal Social Services Research Unit (PSSRU) London School of Economics and Political Science


Building the economic case for community capacity building

  • About PSSRU

  • Our mission: To conduct high quality research on social and health care to inform and influence policy, practice and theory.

  • Established in 1974 at the University of Kent; two new branches opened in 1996 at the LSE and the University of Manchester.

  • LSE Health & Social Care led by Professor Martin Knapp.

  • Linked with the Institute of Psychiatry, London and the National Institute for Health Research.


Building the economic case for community capacity building

Building the economic case for community capacity-building

The work summarised here was partly funded by the Department of Health.

Carried out under the lead of Martin Knapp and with colleagues Margaret Perkins and Tom Snell.

A fuller description of the work in our paper: Martin Knapp, Annette Bauer, Margaret Perkins, Tom Snell (2011) Building community capacity: making an economic case; Think Local Act Personal.

We continue to work in this field (more on this later).


Building the economic case for community capacity building

Building the economic case for community capacity-building

What is community capacity-building?

Why evaluate CCB economically?

How to measure the economic value of CCB?

Examples: Time banks & Debt advise and signposting by community navigators

Where from here?


Building the economic case for community capacity building

What is Community capacity-building

  • Definition

  • Asset-based, developmental approach.

  • Understands obstacles that prevent people (and organisations) from achieving their goals.

  • Empowerment of local people and neighbourhoods to initiate action themselves.

  • Leads to measurable and sustainable results at an individual, community, societal level.

  • Generates social capital (!)


Building the economic case for community capacity building

What is Community capacity-building?

A lot of reasons why it is worthwhile:

Trust

Confidence

Knowledge & skills

Social networks & support

Fun

Empowerment

Self-esteem

Participation

Independence

Self worth & Identification

Happiness

Safety

Quality of life

Activity


Building the economic case for community capacity building

What is Community capacity-building?

“[…] social capital refers to the networks of social relations that provide access to needed resources and supports …

Any study of social capital should encompass the investments that people make […] and the returns to those investments in the form of economic, social and health outcomes for individuals, communities and societies.”

Policy Research Initiative (2003), Social capital: Building on a Network Based Approach, Canada, October 2003


Building the economic case for community capacity building

Why measuring the economic value of community capacity-building?

  • In a world of scarce resources we also need to know: Is CCB good value for money?

    • Can it stop needs before they arise, does it meet them when they do and is there active participation? – Project level

    • Does greater community capacity and governance reduce the demand on the welfare system? – System level


Building the economic case for community capacity building

How to measure the economic value of Community capacity-building?

Befriending Interventions to Older People

= Continuous social and emotional support

Mead et al., 2010

Reduced Isolation/ Loneliness

Mental wellbeing

Cacioppo et al., 2006

Wilson et al., 2007

Beekman, 1997

McCusher, 2007

 Access to services (£)

 Quality of life  (£)

 Crises, home services, hospital  (£)


Building the economic case for community capacity building

How to measure the economic value of community capacity-building?

Barriers

Lots of qualitative but less of quantitative evidence

Process evaluation more common than outcomes evaluation

Organic nature of community development (co-production)

Cumulative impact over time to a range of beneficiaries


Building the economic case for community capacity building

How to measure the economic value of community capacity-building?

Beneficiaries relationships

Direct beneficiaries/ direct involvement

No involvement/ Direct beneficiaries

Participants e.g. improved health

Cares and family members e.g. extra leisure time

Direct involvement/ Indirect beneficiaries

No involvement/ Indirect beneficiaries

Volunteers e.g. self-esteem

Population impact e.g. reduced crime rates


Building the economic case for community capacity building

How to measure the economic value of community capacity-building?

Our modelling approach:

- Ex-ante model.

- Cost-benefit approach.

- One year time horizon.

- Hypothesis building required.

- Comparison group derived from the literature.

- Evidence from (grey-)literature, expert opinions

- Outcome dimensions: Public service utilisation,

productivity, quality of life.

- Costs of intervention: from national sources.


Building the economic case for community capacity building

  • Example: Time banks

  • Community currency = Hours of time.

  • Exchange of skills, practical support, resources (e.g. recreational activities, IT, languages, child minding, transportation).

  • Low administration costs compared to volunteering schemes: Time bank coordinator and overhead costs, IT support for database.

  • Range of qualitative and some quantitative evidence from evaluation reports e.g. Rushey Green Practice.


Building the economic case for community capacity building

Example: Time banks

Calculating the net benefit

- £450

Resource Input

+ £506

Economic value service hours

+ £580

Productivity gains

+ £240

Reduced benefit claims

Average net benefit per person

£876

QoL Improvement

+ £645

Average net benefit per person

£1,545


Building the economic case for community capacity building

  • Example: Community navigators

  • Act the interface between the community and public services: Social, emotional and practical support and signposting to public services.

  • A focus on debt and housing related issues in deprived areas; here: Debt

  • Evidence on consequences of debt came mainly from two national surveys: the English and Wales Civil and Social Justice Survey 2004, the Advice Agency Client Study 2007

  • Effectiveness of intervention from Williams and Sansom 2007, Pleasence et al 2007


Building the economic case for community capacity building

Example: Community navigators

Calculating the net benefit

- £340

Resource Input

- £180

Debt advice agency

+ £990

Productivity gains

+ £140

Reduced benefit claims

Average net benefit per person

£610

QoL Improvement

+ £840

Average net benefit per person

£1,450


Building the economic case for community capacity building

Examples

  • Limitations

  • Hypothetical, based on assumptions from the literature

  • Lack of comparison groups (we don’t know for sure what would have happened without…)

  • Works with averages and ‘typical’ values (service delivery aspects not considered)

  • Standardised, methodological approach is still missing


Building the economic case for community capacity building

Where from here?

  • Policy & research recommendations

  • Data collection/ self evaluation for CCB projects, with a focus on costs and outcomes;

  • Development of agreed set of principles and methods for economic evaluation in this area;

  • New innovative research methods – action research based;

  • Developing service models (organisational form, ownership, delivery aspects).


Building the economic case for community capacity building

Where from here?

  • PSSRU Projects

  • England CCB (planned start Nov. 2011): wide range of CCB projects; participatory approach; collection of costs and outcomes data over 12 months period via standardised (but locally adjusted) self-evaluation tools

  • European CCB with focus on older people (envisaged): role and impact of CCB in 5 countries and identification of best practice; innovation models tested against their economic pay-offs; development and scaling up of innovative service models


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