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Kinesiology 406. Motor control, motor learning and skilled performance. Class information. Professor , Dr. John Buchanan Web page: http://bucksplace.tamu.edu Syllabus handouts by section Articles etc. Book: Motor Learning and Control (concepts and applications) By Richard A. Magill

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kinesiology 406

Kinesiology 406

Motor control, motor learning and skilled performance

class information
Class information
  • Professor, Dr. John Buchanan
  • Web page: http://bucksplace.tamu.edu
    • Syllabus
    • handouts by section
    • Articles
    • etc.
  • Book: Motor Learning and Control (concepts and applications)
    • By Richard A. Magill
  • Class rules
    • Cell phones must be out of sight
    • All laptops, notepads, etc. must be closed and out of sight
grades
Grades
  • Exams and quizzes
    • 2 major exams, 100 points each: 200 points (45%)
    • 9 in class assignments: points each: 180 points (30%)
  • Course grade of A:  342 points
  • Course grade of B: 304 to 341.9 points
  • Course grade of C: 266 to 303.9 points
  • Course grade of D: 228.0 to 265.9 points
  • Course grade of F: < 228 points
what is this course about motor control
What is this course about?Motor control
  • As a scientific discipline, the area of motor controlseeks to identify the , ,and processes involved in the activation of our muscles and coordination of our limbs when performing a motor skill.
  • Brain
  • Body
what is this course about motor learning
What is this course about?Motor learning
  • As a scientific discipline, the area of motor learningseeks to identify how practice produces changes in the , ,and processes involved in the activation of our muscles and coordination of our limbs when performing a motor skill.
  • Brain
  • Body
what is controlled degrees of freedom problem outflow
What is controlled?Degrees of freedom problem: outflow
  • What can a muscle do?
  • How many muscles in the human body?
  • How many possible muscle activity patterns are there?
  • How many nerve cells in the brain?
what is learned sensory input perceptual information inflow
What is learned?Sensory input-Perceptual information: inflow
  • Where does knowledge about moving originate?
  • How do we move in the world around us?
  • How do we remember how to move?
  • Why is paying attention important for learning?
how is the motor control learning problem approached
How is the motor control-learning problem approached?
  • Physical mechanisms
  • Abstract processes
  • Theoretical
motor skills similarities and differences
Motor skills: similarities and differences
  • Is this a true statement?

Soccer

Piano

Drumming

motor learning s imilarities and differences
Motor learning: similarities and differences
  • Is this statement true or false:

coaching

chapter 1

Chapter 1

The Classification of Motor Skills

Pages 2-11 only.

Do not read section: “Gentile’s two-dimensions taxonomy”

levels of analysis and classifications
Levels of analysis and classifications

Motor skill (or action)

Movements

Classification of motor skills

movements and motor skills
Movements and motor skills

Limb and body motion

environmental factors and motor skills
Environmental factors and motor skills

Action initiation and context stability

chapter 2

Chapter 2

The Measurement of Human Performance

All pages, 22-45.

experimental p articipants
Experimental participants

Populations

Samples

Selecting a sample

experimental variables and groups
Experimental variables and groups

Independent variable

Dependent variable

Control condition

Experimental condition

dependent variables performance outcome goal directed measures
Dependent variables: performance outcome (goal-directed) measures

Temporal measures

Spatial measures

dependent variables performance production movement directed measures
Dependent variables: performance production (movement-directed) measures

Kinematics – single joint or limb

Kinematics – two or more joints

Electromyography (EMG)

Brain activity signals (EEG, PET, fMRI)

viewing kinematic data
Viewing kinematic data
  • Stick figure representation of movements and actions
plotting kinematic data time series and angle angle plot
Plotting kinematic data: time series and angle-angle plot

Add right-arm abd

add left-armabd

Left-arm motion (x)

abduction

15 cm

adduction

Right-arm motion (x)

Relative phasing

joystick target task displacement and velocity
Joystick-target taskDisplacement and velocity

30 cm

Vel (cm/s)

0

0

1

.75

.5

Time (sec)

Speed. = Dis./ time

Vel. = (Di+1 – Di)/ time

displacement and emg
Displacement and EMG

How is muscle activity related to limb movement?

analyzing performance and outcome measures mean x n
Analyzing performance and outcome measures: mean = (x)/n

Arithmetic mean: bimanual circle tracing task

Left-arm abd-add

14

14

15

16

15

16

14

16

Right-arm abd-add

12

13

17

17

19

21

9

16

(x)/n = =

(x)/n = =

computing errors for outcome and performance measures
Computing errors for outcome and performance measures

The task has a specific goal and the participant receives a score.

constant error ce directional bias
Constant error (CE): directional bias

Goal: bimanual circle tracing task (amplitude of 15 cm)

Left-arm

Deg.Error

1) 16

2) 12

3) 14

4) 15

5) 15

6) 13

7) 17

8) 15

Right-arm

Deg.Error

1) 16

2) 12

3) 18

4) 14

5) 13

6) 19

7) 10

8) 13

CE= CE=

Mean CE = Mean CE =

absolute error ae accuracy
Absolute error (AE): accuracy

Goal: bimanual circle tracing task (amplitude of 15 cm)

Left-arm

Deg.Error

1) 16

2) 12

3) 14

4) 15

5) 15

6) 13

7) 17

8) 15

Right-arm

Deg.Error

1) 16

2) 12

3) 18

4) 14

5) 13

6) 19

7) 10

8) 13

AE= AE=

Mean AE = Mean AE =

variable error ve consistency
Variable error (VE): consistency

Goal: bimanual circle tracing task (amplitude of 15 cm)

Right-arm data

MnAEscore (Mn-sc)(Mn-sc)2(Summed)/nsqrt

1

3

3

1

2

4

5

2

(2.625-1) =

(2.625-3) =

(2.625-3) =

(2.625-1) =

(2.625-2) =

(2.625-4) =

(2.625-5) =

(2.625-2) =

13.87/8 = 1.73

VE = =

root mean square error spatial target
Root mean square error (Spatial target)

10 targets

1) 9

2) 20

3) 9

4) 18

5) 8

6) 16

7) 7

8) 14

9) 6.5

10) 6

10 scores

1) 9.1

2) 22

3) 4

4) 20

5

18

6.5

19

5.5

5

RMSE

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

9)

10)

S2

T2

T1

T3

S1

S3

brain recordings and imaging
Brain recordings and imaging

EEG (Electroencephalography)

fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

PET (Positron Emission Topography)

positron emission tomography pet scan rcbf
Positron emission tomography:PET scan - rCBF

top - nose

Figure 2C

  • radioactive tracer – sugar

Kandel, Schwartz, Jessel (1991). Principles of Neuroscience, Figure 22-5, pp .315

pet scan and visual stimuli
PET scan and visual stimuli

Eyes closed

Kandel, Schwartz, Jesse (1991). Principles of Neuroscience, Figure 22-6, pp .316

chapter 4

Chapter 4

Neuromotor Basis of Motor Control

All pages, 64-79.

types and functions of neurons information flow
Types and Functions of NeuronsInformation flow

Three types of functional neurons

  • Where does an action start and where does it end?
electroencephalography eeg movement preparation
Electroencephalography (EEG): movement preparation

Evoked potentials

Readiness potential

Surface measure

motor cortex to muscles
Motor cortex to muscles

Crossing over of control signals

  • Connectivity and surface area for the hands

Left-H.

Right-H.

subcortical structures
Subcortical structures

Basal ganglia – 4 components

Thalamus

brain stem and cerebellum
Brain stem and cerebellum

Receives input from

Regulates

Involved in

spinal cord

cerebellum and timing
Cerebellum and timing

Ivry et al., (2002). Spencer et al., (2003).

Discrete tapping task - finger flexion

Continuous motion – circle drawing

Why is this difference important?

continuous and discrete actions
Continuous and discrete actions

Schaal et al. (2004). Right wrist flexion-extension motion

4 types of movements (or actions) (Fig. 1A and 1B)

ext

flx

ext

flx

ext

flx

ext

flx

continuous and discrete actions brain activity patterns
Continuous and discrete actions: brain activity patterns
  • Bilateral activity
  • Unilateral (contra-) activity

Discrete:

Discrete-rest:

Rhythmic-rest:

Rhythmic:

Schaal et al. (2004). Figure 2C

anatomy and function mri and pet
Anatomy and function: MRI and PET

A. finger flexion

B. complex finger sequence

alpha a motor neuron
Alpha (a) motor neuron

Input

  • Conduction
  • Output
alpha gamma co activation
Alpha()-Gamma () co-activation

A

B

B) Gamma MN co-activated:

A) Alpha MN activates:

features of the motor unit
Features of the motor unit

How many aMN in human body?

How many extrafusal muscle fibers in the human body?

What is the average ratio of aMN to muscle fibers?

How is the generation of force controlled by the CNS?

spinal circuitry and f inal common path
Spinal circuitry and final common path

What information contributes to the production of voluntary movements?

Reflexes

Interneurons

withdrawal crossed extensor reflex divergence
Withdrawal (crossed-extensor) reflex: divergence

Sensory

cell axon

inter-

neuron

Motor

neurons

flx

ext

+ excitation

- inhibition

hierarchy of the motor system
Hierarchy of the Motor System

Higher centers

Mid level components

Lowest level

chapter 9

Chapter 9

Attention as a limited capacity resource

Pages194-206.

two major aspects of attention
Two major aspects of attention

Focusing of attention

Splitting attention

information processing model
Information processing model

3 stage serial model of the perception-action process

CNS

splitting attention
Splitting attention

Parallel processing model of the perception-action process

SP

RS

RP

SP

RS

RP

central resource capacity flexible allocation kahneman 1973
Central-resource capacity: Flexible allocation (Kahneman 1973)

Rules of allocation

  • Cognitive effort
splitting attention gait and parkinson s disease
Splitting attention: Gait and Parkinson’s disease
  • O’Shea et al. (2002)
  • Primary task
  • Secondary task
  • Will motor and cognitive tasks interfere to the same extent?
  • Will Parkinson’s interact uniquely with the motor or cognitive task?
splitting attention gait and parkinson s disease1
Splitting attention: Gait and Parkinson’s disease
  • Which group’s performance was impacted the most by the secondary task?
  • Did the motor and cognitive tasks produce the same amount of interference within each group?
splitting attention learning in a clinical setting
Splitting attention: Learning in a clinical setting

Geurts and Mulder (1994): limb replacement and relearning

What is an appropriate secondary task?

Variables

8 weeks of rehabilitation therapy

arousal attention and performance
Arousal, attention and performance

Levels of arousal

Performance

arousal

neural basis of attention
Neural basis of attention

Reticular activation system (red lines)

Emerges from the reticular formation in brainstem

chapter 10

Chapter 10

Memory components, forgetting, and strategies

74

principles of human remembering and forgetting
Principles of human remembering and forgetting

What are the functional roles of memory?

How are memories encoded, stored, and recalled based on these functional roles?

Comparison of verbal and motor memory

multiple memory models
Multiple memory models

Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)

Baddeley (1986, 1995)

Working Memory

Long-term memory

working memory wm static characteristics
Working memory (WM) static characteristics

Neural correlates

Duration

Capacity

Action example - Ille and Cadopi (1999)

increasing wm capacity subjective organization chunking
Increasing WM capacity: subjective organization (chunking)
  • Starkes et al (1987)
  • Who remembers the most (produces the most) under a given condition?
long term memory ltm characteristics
Long-term memory (LTM) characteristics

Functional LTM systems

Capacity and Duration

neural aspects of ltm memory formation
Neural aspects of LTM memory formation

H.M. (1950’s) suffered from epilepsy

What problems appeared?

Conclusion

mirror tracing hm
Mirror Tracing: HM

Day 1

  • Mirror tracing

# of errors

Day 2

# of errors

30

20

10

0

30

20

10

0

30

20

10

0

Day 3

  • Extended motor skilltests

# of errors

2 4 6 8 10

2 4 6 8 10

2 4 6 8 10

remembering and forgetting
Remembering and forgetting

Encoding

Retrieval

Forgetting

encoding categorization of actions
Encoding: Categorization of actions

Magill and Lee (1987)

Slide right (6)

Slide left (6)

  • Free recall:
encoding verbal cues and actions
Encoding: verbal cues and actions

Shea (1977) - lever positioning task – without vision

3 verbal cues labels

  • Recall interval
verbal cues as mnemonics for movements
Verbal cues as mnemonics for movements

9

8

AE (deg)

7

6

5

Retention interval (sec)

5 sec

60 sec

proactive interference wm
Proactive interference: WM

Experimental group

Control group

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

retroactive interference wm
Retroactive interference: WM

Experimental group

Control group

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

retroactive interference motor task
Retroactive interference: motor task

Stelmach and Kelso (1970)

A

interfering with motor consolidation
Interfering with motor consolidation

Muellbacher et al (2002) – TMS study

Task:

Participants’ Goal

Hypothesis

tms immediately after practice
TMS immediately after practice

Experimental group –TMS

Control group - TMS

3 Practice sessions

2.5

2.5

2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Normalized Acceleration

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5

P1

P2

P3

0.0

0.0

rTMS1

rTMS2

tms long delay after practice
TMS long delay after practice

Hypothesis: The importance of motor cortex activity in consolidating an action decays with time.

Experimental group

Control group

1 Practice session

2.5

2.5

2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Normalized Acceleration

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5

0.0

0.0

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