Kinesiology 406
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Kinesiology 406. Motor control, motor learning and skilled performance. Class information. Professor , Dr. John Buchanan Web page: http://bucksplace.tamu.edu Syllabus handouts by section Articles etc. Book: Motor Learning and Control (concepts and applications) By Richard A. Magill

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Kinesiology 406

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Kinesiology 406

Kinesiology 406

Motor control, motor learning and skilled performance


Class information

Class information

  • Professor, Dr. John Buchanan

  • Web page: http://bucksplace.tamu.edu

    • Syllabus

    • handouts by section

    • Articles

    • etc.

  • Book: Motor Learning and Control (concepts and applications)

    • By Richard A. Magill

  • Class rules

    • Cell phones must be out of sight

    • All laptops, notepads, etc. must be closed and out of sight


Grades

Grades

  • Exams and quizzes

    • 2 major exams, 100 points each: 200 points (45%)

    • 9 in class assignments: points each: 180 points (30%)

  • Course grade of A:  342 points

  • Course grade of B: 304 to 341.9 points

  • Course grade of C: 266 to 303.9 points

  • Course grade of D: 228.0 to 265.9 points

  • Course grade of F: < 228 points


What is this course about motor control

What is this course about?Motor control

  • As a scientific discipline, the area of motor controlseeks to identify the , ,and processes involved in the activation of our muscles and coordination of our limbs when performing a motor skill.

  • Brain

  • Body


What is this course about motor learning

What is this course about?Motor learning

  • As a scientific discipline, the area of motor learningseeks to identify how practice produces changes in the , ,and processes involved in the activation of our muscles and coordination of our limbs when performing a motor skill.

  • Brain

  • Body


What is controlled degrees of freedom problem outflow

What is controlled?Degrees of freedom problem: outflow

  • What can a muscle do?

  • How many muscles in the human body?

  • How many possible muscle activity patterns are there?

  • How many nerve cells in the brain?


What is learned sensory input perceptual information inflow

What is learned?Sensory input-Perceptual information: inflow

  • Where does knowledge about moving originate?

  • How do we move in the world around us?

  • How do we remember how to move?

  • Why is paying attention important for learning?


How is the motor control learning problem approached

How is the motor control-learning problem approached?

  • Physical mechanisms

  • Abstract processes

  • Theoretical


Motor skills similarities and differences

Motor skills: similarities and differences

  • Is this a true statement?

Soccer

Piano

Drumming


Motor learning s imilarities and differences

Motor learning: similarities and differences

  • Is this statement true or false:

coaching


Chapter 1

Chapter 1

The Classification of Motor Skills

Pages 2-11 only.

Do not read section: “Gentile’s two-dimensions taxonomy”


Levels of analysis and classifications

Levels of analysis and classifications

Motor skill (or action)

Movements

Classification of motor skills


Muscles and motor skills

Muscles and motor skills

  • Muscle size


Movements and motor skills

Movements and motor skills

Limb and body motion


Environmental factors and motor skills

Environmental factors and motor skills

Action initiation and context stability


Chapter 2

Chapter 2

The Measurement of Human Performance

All pages, 22-45.


Experimental p articipants

Experimental participants

Populations

Samples

Selecting a sample


Experimental variables and groups

Experimental variables and groups

Independent variable

Dependent variable

Control condition

Experimental condition


Dependent variables performance outcome goal directed measures

Dependent variables: performance outcome (goal-directed) measures

Temporal measures

Spatial measures


Dependent variables performance production movement directed measures

Dependent variables: performance production (movement-directed) measures

Kinematics – single joint or limb

Kinematics – two or more joints

Electromyography (EMG)

Brain activity signals (EEG, PET, fMRI)


Data collection procedures and equipment

Data collection procedures and equipment

Computers


Data collection procedures and equipment1

Data collection procedures and equipment

  • Motion analysis systems


Viewing kinematic data

Viewing kinematic data

  • Stick figure representation of movements and actions


Plotting kinematic data time series and angle angle plot

Plotting kinematic data: time series and angle-angle plot

Add right-arm abd

add left-armabd

Left-arm motion (x)

abduction

15 cm

adduction

Right-arm motion (x)

Relative phasing


Joystick target task displacement and velocity

Joystick-target taskDisplacement and velocity

30 cm

Vel (cm/s)

0

0

1

.75

.5

Time (sec)

Speed. = Dis./ time

Vel. = (Di+1 – Di)/ time


Displacement and emg

Displacement and EMG

How is muscle activity related to limb movement?


Analyzing performance and outcome measures mean x n

Analyzing performance and outcome measures: mean = (x)/n

Arithmetic mean: bimanual circle tracing task

Left-arm abd-add

14

14

15

16

15

16

14

16

Right-arm abd-add

12

13

17

17

19

21

9

16

(x)/n = =

(x)/n = =


Computing errors for outcome and performance measures

Computing errors for outcome and performance measures

The task has a specific goal and the participant receives a score.


Constant error ce directional bias

Constant error (CE): directional bias

Goal: bimanual circle tracing task (amplitude of 15 cm)

Left-arm

Deg.Error

1) 16

2) 12

3) 14

4) 15

5) 15

6) 13

7) 17

8) 15

Right-arm

Deg.Error

1) 16

2) 12

3) 18

4) 14

5) 13

6) 19

7) 10

8) 13

CE= CE=

Mean CE = Mean CE =


Absolute error ae accuracy

Absolute error (AE): accuracy

Goal: bimanual circle tracing task (amplitude of 15 cm)

Left-arm

Deg.Error

1) 16

2) 12

3) 14

4) 15

5) 15

6) 13

7) 17

8) 15

Right-arm

Deg.Error

1) 16

2) 12

3) 18

4) 14

5) 13

6) 19

7) 10

8) 13

AE= AE=

Mean AE = Mean AE =


Variable error ve consistency

Variable error (VE): consistency

Goal: bimanual circle tracing task (amplitude of 15 cm)

Right-arm data

MnAEscore (Mn-sc)(Mn-sc)2(Summed)/nsqrt

1

3

3

1

2

4

5

2

(2.625-1) =

(2.625-3) =

(2.625-3) =

(2.625-1) =

(2.625-2) =

(2.625-4) =

(2.625-5) =

(2.625-2) =

13.87/8 = 1.73

VE = =


Root mean square error rmse tracking task

Root mean square error (RMSE)tracking task

20

10

0


Root mean square error spatial target

Root mean square error (Spatial target)

10 targets

1) 9

2) 20

3) 9

4) 18

5) 8

6) 16

7) 7

8) 14

9) 6.5

10) 6

10 scores

1) 9.1

2) 22

3) 4

4) 20

5

18

6.5

19

5.5

5

RMSE

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

9)

10)

S2

T2

T1

T3

S1

S3


Brain recordings and imaging

Brain recordings and imaging

EEG (Electroencephalography)

fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

PET (Positron Emission Topography)


Positron emission tomography pet scan rcbf

Positron emission tomography:PET scan - rCBF

top - nose

Figure 2C

  • radioactive tracer – sugar

Kandel, Schwartz, Jessel (1991). Principles of Neuroscience, Figure 22-5, pp .315


Pet scan and visual stimuli

PET scan and visual stimuli

Eyes closed

Kandel, Schwartz, Jesse (1991). Principles of Neuroscience, Figure 22-6, pp .316


Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Neuromotor Basis of Motor Control

All pages, 64-79.


Types and functions of neurons information flow

Types and Functions of NeuronsInformation flow

Three types of functional neurons

  • Where does an action start and where does it end?


Cerebral hemispheres

Cerebral hemispheres

Left

right


Somatotopic maps commands to muscles and body sensation to cortex

Somatotopic maps: commands to muscles and body sensation to cortex

Penfield and Rasmussen (1950)


Electroencephalography eeg movement preparation

Electroencephalography (EEG): movement preparation

Evoked potentials

Readiness potential

Surface measure


Motor cortex to muscles

Motor cortex to muscles

Crossing over of control signals

  • Connectivity and surface area for the hands

Left-H.

Right-H.


Motor planning and sequencing areas

Motor planning and sequencing areas


Subcortical structures

Subcortical structures

Basal ganglia – 4 components

Thalamus


Brain stem and cerebellum

Brain stem and cerebellum

Receives input from

Regulates

Involved in

spinal cord


Cerebellum and timing

Cerebellum and timing

Ivry et al., (2002). Spencer et al., (2003).

Discrete tapping task - finger flexion

Continuous motion – circle drawing

Why is this difference important?


Continuous and discrete actions

Continuous and discrete actions

Schaal et al. (2004). Right wrist flexion-extension motion

4 types of movements (or actions) (Fig. 1A and 1B)

ext

flx

ext

flx

ext

flx

ext

flx


Continuous and discrete actions brain activity patterns

Continuous and discrete actions: brain activity patterns

  • Bilateral activity

  • Unilateral (contra-) activity

Discrete:

Discrete-rest:

Rhythmic-rest:

Rhythmic:

Schaal et al. (2004). Figure 2C


Anatomy and function mri and pet

Anatomy and function: MRI and PET

A. finger flexion

B. complex finger sequence


Spinal cord sensory motor information flow

Spinal cord: sensory-motor information flow


Alpha a motor neuron

Alpha (a) motor neuron

Input

  • Conduction

  • Output


Kinesiology 406

Muscle fibers and motor neurons


Alpha gamma co activation

Alpha()-Gamma () co-activation

A

B

B) Gamma MN co-activated:

A) Alpha MN activates:


Features of the motor unit

Features of the motor unit

How many aMN in human body?

How many extrafusal muscle fibers in the human body?

What is the average ratio of aMN to muscle fibers?

How is the generation of force controlled by the CNS?


Force production the size principle and motor unit activation

Force production: The size principle and motor unit activation


Spinal circuitry and f inal common path

Spinal circuitry and final common path

What information contributes to the production of voluntary movements?

Reflexes

Interneurons


Stretch reflex mono synaptic

Stretch reflex: mono-synaptic

ext

ext


Inter neurons and information divergence

Inter-neurons and information divergence

Painful

stimuli


Withdrawal crossed extensor reflex divergence

Withdrawal (crossed-extensor) reflex: divergence

Sensory

cell axon

inter-

neuron

Motor

neurons

flx

ext

+ excitation

- inhibition


Final common path information convergence

Final common path: information convergence

Alpha motor

neuron


Hierarchy of the motor system

Hierarchy of the Motor System

Higher centers

Mid level components

Lowest level


Chapter 9

Chapter 9

Attention as a limited capacity resource

Pages194-206.


Two major aspects of attention

Two major aspects of attention

Focusing of attention

Splitting attention


Information processing model

Information processing model

3 stage serial model of the perception-action process

CNS


Splitting attention

Splitting attention

Parallel processing model of the perception-action process

SP

RS

RP

SP

RS

RP


Central resource capacity flexible allocation kahneman 1973

Central-resource capacity: Flexible allocation (Kahneman 1973)

Rules of allocation

  • Cognitive effort


Multiple resource theories wickens 1992

Multiple-resource theories (Wickens 1992)


Splitting attention gait and parkinson s disease

Splitting attention: Gait and Parkinson’s disease

  • O’Shea et al. (2002)

  • Primary task

  • Secondary task

  • Will motor and cognitive tasks interfere to the same extent?

  • Will Parkinson’s interact uniquely with the motor or cognitive task?


Splitting attention gait and parkinson s disease1

Splitting attention: Gait and Parkinson’s disease

  • Which group’s performance was impacted the most by the secondary task?

  • Did the motor and cognitive tasks produce the same amount of interference within each group?


Splitting attention learning in a clinical setting

Splitting attention: Learning in a clinical setting

Geurts and Mulder (1994): limb replacement and relearning

What is an appropriate secondary task?

Variables

8 weeks of rehabilitation therapy


Cop sway and attention

2 weeks

8 weeks

CoP (sway) and attention

CoP Velocity


Arousal attention and performance

Arousal, attention and performance

Levels of arousal

Performance

arousal


Neural basis of attention

Neural basis of attention

Reticular activation system (red lines)

Emerges from the reticular formation in brainstem


Chapter 10

Chapter 10

Memory components, forgetting, and strategies

74


Principles of human remembering and forgetting

Principles of human remembering and forgetting

What are the functional roles of memory?

How are memories encoded, stored, and recalled based on these functional roles?

Comparison of verbal and motor memory


Multiple memory models

Multiple memory models

Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)

Baddeley (1986, 1995)

Working Memory

Long-term memory


Working memory wm static characteristics

Working memory (WM) static characteristics

Neural correlates

Duration

Capacity

Action example - Ille and Cadopi (1999)


Increasing wm capacity subjective organization chunking

Increasing WM capacity: subjective organization (chunking)

  • Starkes et al (1987)

  • Who remembers the most (produces the most) under a given condition?


Long term memory ltm characteristics

Long-term memory (LTM) characteristics

Functional LTM systems

Capacity and Duration


Neural aspects of ltm memory formation

Neural aspects of LTM memory formation

H.M. (1950’s) suffered from epilepsy

What problems appeared?

Conclusion


Mirror tracing hm

Mirror Tracing: HM

Day 1

  • Mirror tracing

# of errors

Day 2

# of errors

30

20

10

0

30

20

10

0

30

20

10

0

Day 3

  • Extended motor skilltests

# of errors

2 4 6 8 10

2 4 6 8 10

2 4 6 8 10


Remembering and forgetting

Remembering and forgetting

Encoding

Retrieval

Forgetting


Encoding categorization of actions

Encoding: Categorization of actions

Magill and Lee (1987)

Slide right (6)

Slide left (6)

  • Free recall:


Encoding verbal cues and actions

Encoding: verbal cues and actions

Shea (1977) - lever positioning task – without vision

3 verbal cues labels

  • Recall interval


Verbal cues as mnemonics for movements

Verbal cues as mnemonics for movements

9

8

AE (deg)

7

6

5

Retention interval (sec)

5 sec

60 sec


Proactive interference wm

Proactive interference: WM

Experimental group

Control group

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3


Retroactive interference wm

Retroactive interference: WM

Experimental group

Control group

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3


Retroactive interference motor task

Retroactive interference: motor task

Stelmach and Kelso (1970)

A


Interfering with motor consolidation

Interfering with motor consolidation

Muellbacher et al (2002) – TMS study

Task:

Participants’ Goal

Hypothesis


Tms immediately after practice

TMS immediately after practice

Experimental group –TMS

Control group - TMS

3 Practice sessions

2.5

2.5

2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Normalized Acceleration

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5

P1

P2

P3

0.0

0.0

rTMS1

rTMS2


Tms long delay after practice

TMS long delay after practice

Hypothesis: The importance of motor cortex activity in consolidating an action decays with time.

Experimental group

Control group

1 Practice session

2.5

2.5

2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Normalized Acceleration

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5

0.0

0.0


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