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Edge-to-Edge Bailout Forward Contracts for Single-Domain Internet Services. Weini Liu , Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Hasan Karaoglu , University of Nevada, Reno Aparna Gupta , Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Murat Yuksel , University of Nevada, Reno

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edge to edge bailout forward contracts for single domain internet services

Edge-to-Edge Bailout Forward Contracts for Single-Domain Internet Services

Weini Liu, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Hasan Karaoglu, University of Nevada, Reno

Aparna Gupta, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Murat Yuksel, University of Nevada, Reno

Koushik Kar, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

motivation
Motivation
  • ISPs can provide single domain QoS for wide range of applications
  • Video-conference
  • Online Video Games
  • Streaming Live Media, name it
motivation1
Motivation
  • There is no easy way to :
  • express QoS demand to intermediate providers
  • exchange QoS service capabilities and offers to other providers

?

motivation2
Motivation

Implied Challenges

  • Current architectural problems:
    • Providersdo not have economic knobs to manage risks involved in
      • investing innovative QoS technologies and
      • business relationships with other providers
    • Userscannot express value choices at sufficient granularity – only at access level

capability to provide e2e higher quality services

money-back guarantees, risk/cost sharing

flexibility in time:

forward/option pricing

flexibility in space:

user-defined inter-domain routes

intra domain dynamic contracts

Stations of the provider computing and advertising local prices for edge-to-edge contracts.

Stations of the provider computing and advertising local prices for edge-to-edge contracts.

Edge

Router

Edge

Router

Edge

Router

Customers

Network Core

Edge

Router

Edge

Router

Edge

Router

Intra-domain Dynamic Contracts
  • Contract components
    • performance component, e.g., capacity
    • financial component, e.g., price
    • time component, e.g., term
slide7

ISP

B

ISP

A

ISP

C

ISP

B

routable datagrams

ISP

A

ISP

C

ISP

B

contracts overlaid on routable datagrams

ISP

A

ISP

C

Contract-switching: A paradigm shift…

Circuit-switching

e2e circuits

Packet-switching

Contract-switching

7

spot forward and bailout forward contracts
SPOT, Forward and Bailout Forward Contracts
  • Well defined components (performance, financial and time)
  • Time Duration for Contracts
  • Spot Contracts
    • Providing the service in short term considering current market conditions
  • Forward Contracts
    • Providing the service at a future time for predetermined price
  • Bailout Forward Contracts
    • Make forward contracts applicable to capacitated network resources

Atomic

Short

Medium

Long

bailout forward contract
Bailout Forward Contract
  • Single g2g Contract
  • Bandwidth guarantee as performance metric ( eg.100 Mbps )
  • Bandwidth threshold to activate bailout condition ( e.g..80 Mbps)
  • Exposed to variation on demand, bandwidth capacity and spot prices
  • (e.g. For next five days, $0.25)
bailout forward contract1
Bailout Forward Contract
  • Multiple g2g Contracts
  • Exposed to the additional effects of other traffic flows as a result of overlapping links with other g2g overlay paths
  • How we model this interaction ?
intensity of overlap
Intensity of Overlap

Link Capacity 1.5 gbps

Utilization = 10%

Link Capacity 0.3 gbps

Utilization = 50%

Flow1 50 mbps

Flow2 100 mbps

performance
Performance
  • Can an ISP survive by applying BFC approach ?
    • How frequent does BFC bailout ?
      • BFC Robustness against
        • increasing demand ? (demand)
        • decreasing available bandwidth ? (supply)
        • major link failures ?
    • How efficient is BFC pricing ?
      • Revenue Losses
network model
Network Model
  • Realistic Simulation requires
    • Realistic ISP Topology
      • Adjacency Matrix (Given by Rocketfuel Data)‏
      • Link Delays & Weights (Given by Rocketfuel Data)‏
      • Link Capacities (We have to model)‏
      • Edge and Backbone Router Classification (We have to model)‏
      • Routing Matrix (Path calculated by Shortest Path Algorithms, as OSPF does)‏
    • Realistic Traffic Model
      • Traffic Matrix Estimation(We have to model)‏
network model1
Network Model
  • BFS Based Link Capacity Estimation
  • Select Most Connected Router
  • Initiate a BFS
  • Assign higher capacity to links closer to center

DC. BFS Dist = 2

Atlanta BFS Dist = 3

network model2
Network Model

Gravity Model

Traffic ~ Pop. 1 X Pop. 2

Seattle 6K

24X

2X

Chicago 3M

NY 8M

  • Gravity Model Based Traffic Estimation
  • Determine Degree and BFS Distance Thresholds
  • Classify Edge / Backbone Routers
  • Associate Area Population with Edge Router s
  • Use Gravity Model to estimate traffic size
network model3
Network Model

Summary :

  • Construct Routing Matrix RnXn
    • Using Adjacency Matrix A and Weight Matrix W given by Rocketfuel Topologies
    • Apply Dijktra’s Shortest Path Algorithm
  • BFS Based Link Capacity Estimation
  • Form the Traffic Matrix TnXnusing Gravity Model
  • Calculate traffic load on each link
    • If link capacity is less than traffic load, upgrade link capacity
simulation setup multiple bfc s
Simulation Setup – Multiple BFC’s
  • Failure Mode 1-2-3
  • One of the most heavily loaded link is failed
  • Traffic passes through failed link is rerouted
  • Bandwidth share and correlation between traffic flows also changes
simulation results single bfc1
Simulation Results– Single BFC

Results for five sample g2g contracts

Threshold = 15th percentile

simulation results multiple bfcs1
Simulation Results– Multiple BFCs

Bailout times intensify around 150 / 1000 ~ 15% level

simulation results multiple bfcs2
Simulation Results– Multiple BFCs

Bailout times intensify around 150 / 1000 ~ 15% level

simulation results multiple bfcs3
Simulation Results– Multiple BFCs

Bailout times intensify around 150 / 1000 ~ 15% level

simulation results multiple bfcs4
Simulation Results– Multiple BFCs

Bailout times intensify around 150 / 1000 ~ 15% level

network analysis
Network Analysis

Mean fraction 27%

summary
Summary
  • Single domain edge to edge path abstraction
    • Domain is a set of G2G overlay paths
    • Flexibility to price each G2G path individually
  • Bailout Forward Contract with Bandwidth Guarantees
    • Bandwidth threshold as Bailout clause
    • Money-back guarantees
  • BFC’s are robust against link failures, fluctuations in demand, supply and correlation effects between traffic flows
future work
Future Work
  • Conduct network analysis inter-domain e2e QoS paths “Contract Paths” which are composed of edge to edge (g2g) intra-domain “Contract Links”
  • Study Economical and Technical Aspects of “Contract Switching Paradigm”
    • Discovery of Better Alternative Paths
    • Better network utilization
    • Game Theoretical analysis of collaboration of ISPs
questions
Questions ?
  • Value Flows and Risk Management Architecture for Future Internet
  • Project Website
    • http://www.nets-find.net/Funded/ValueFlows.php
    • http://www.cse.unr.edu/~yuksem/contract-switching.htm
    • Or google “Contract Switching”
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