Czech drug policy and its recent development
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Czech Drug Policy and Its Recent Development. Secretariat of the Government Council for Drug Policy Coordination. Structure of the presentation. Basic model and concept of Drug Policy National Drug Policy Strategy and Action Plan – goals and priorities Evaluation of Drug Policy Strategy

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Czech drug policy and its recent development

Czech Drug Policy and Its Recent Development

Secretariat of the Government Council for Drug Policy Coordination


Structure of the presentation

Structure of the presentation

  • Basic model and concept of Drug Policy

  • National Drug Policy Strategy and Action Plan – goals and priorities

  • Evaluation of Drug Policy Strategy

  • Recent developments – New Penal Code, Medical Cannabis


M odel of drug policy

Model of Drug Policy

  • The way how society (decision makers)perceive drug phenomenon gives a framework in which drug policies are formulated, intervention and measures taken


Model of drug policy

Model of Drug Policy

  • Model of repression and law-abiding (Hartnoll, 2004)

    • Drug use is viewed as devious, pathological

    • Control of psychoactive substances, combating the drug use

  • Model of Public Health

    • Drug use is viewed in the context of individual and social behavior, with risks for individuals and the society

  • Socio/economic model

    • Drug use is a phenomenon created by the reaction of society and pathological behavior is the consequence of the policy. Normalization of drug use and repression only creates the illegal market and leads to the criminalization

Hartnoll R., (2004): Drugs and Drug Dependency. Connecting research, policy and praxes. What have we learned and what could we learn. Council of Europe ISBN 80-86734-45-5


M odel of drug policy1

Model of Drug Policy

  • Model of risk-minimalization (Cohen, 1997)

    • Attention is focused on the minimalization of risks and organized crime (drug distribution). Decrease in drug use prevalence is viewed not as a goal of drug policy, but as a means for reducing the harm of drug use

Cohen P. (1997): Drugs Policy Profiles. Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam


M odel of drug policy2

Model of Drug Policy

The case of Czech Drug Policy:

  • Public Health (Protection) Model

    • Drug use is viewed in the context of individual and social behavior, with risks for individuals and the society. Drug dependency is viewed in line with the Bio – psycho – social – (spiritual) model

    • Is based on a comprehensive aggregate of preventive, educational, therapeutic, social, regulatory, and control measures, including law enforcement measures


Czech drug policy and its recent development

  • 1990 – 1992 Commission of CSFR for Drugs

  • December 1992 – Christmas memorandum to the Government

  • 1993 – set up of the Interministerial Drug Commission

  • 1993 – 1996 – First Drug Policy Program

  • 1998 – 2000 – Second Drug Policy Program

  • 2001 – 2004 – National Drug Strategy

  • 2005 – 2009 – National Drug Strategy and 2 Action plans

  • 2010 – 2018 – National Drug Strategy and 3 Action Plans


Czech drug policy and its recent development

  • 1998 – 2000 – Second Drug Policy Program

    • For the first time ever, priorities also included alternatives to the (criminal) prosecution of drug users and prison programmes

    • there was also a shift in the perception of drugs – from the perception of drugs as a direct threat to society to a perception of drugs as a phenomenon presenting health and social risks

  • 2001 – 2004 – National Drug Strategy

    • harm reduction strategy finally became (officialy) one of the four pillars of the government policy


National drug strategy 2010 2018

SEKRETARIÁTRADY VLÁDY PRO KOORDINACI PROTIDROGOVÉ POLITIKY

National Drug Strategy 2010-2018


National drug strategy 2010 20181

National Drug Strategy 2010-2018

  • 4 specific objectives of the Strategy:

    • To reduce experimental drug use

    • To reduce problem drug use

    • To reduce the risks related to drug use

    • To reduce availability of drugs

  • Action Plans – 3 for 3 years

    • sets the priorities of drug policy for the concerned period


National drug strategy 2010 20182

National Drug Strategy 2010-2018

Priorities of the Action Plan 2010-2012

  • to implement interventions aimed at reducing the high level of the use of cannabis, in particular, and other legal and illegal drugs;

  • to reduce the high level of problem pervitin use by applying specific interventions and programmes;

  • to strengthen the drug policy in relation to legal drugs (alcohol and tobacco), primarily in terms of policy and coordination mechanisms and treatment, and

  • to develop and improve the drug policy’s overall legislative, financial, and coordination mechanisms


Czech drug policy and its recent development

Evaluation of Drug

Policy Strategy 2005-2009


Aim of evaluation

Aim of evaluation

To learn:

  • The extend to which strategic goals where achieved

    (How has the drug situation changed)

  • What were the main achievements and failures of drug policy in 5 years


Findings

Findings

The character and potential of planned activities (defined in Action plan 2007-2009) and also the level of successful implementation corresponds with the success in achieving strategic goals and areas


Eg prevention

High level of experimental use – cannabis, alcohol …

The consumption of illegal drugs increased, of legal drug stabilized on a high level

Prevention in Action plan 2007-2009

No activity leaded directly to specific strategic goals

High % (70) of activities focused on organizational-coordination frame – only 30 % of activities were focused on solving a problem

Fulfilled/implemented 58 % of activities in 2005-2006, and 35 % in 2007-2009

Implemented 1 activity out of 6 characterized as those with higher potential of changing a drug situation

No improvement was noticed/declared in this area; what more number of strong points from 2004 were weakened (SWOT)

eg. - prevention


Eg harm reduction

Infection diseases and other health consequences on a low level

Stabilization of problem drug users

Relatively stable network of drug services

Harm-reduction in Action plan 2007-2009

Had the highest no. of activities leading directly to achieving most of strategic goals

Highest % (65) activities, which were specifically focused on problem solving,

Fulfilled/implemented 78 % of activities 2005-2006 (most from all 4 pillars), 41 % in 2007-2009

Implemented 8 key activities (from 16) important for strategic goals achievement

eg. – harm reduction


Czech drug policy and its recent development

Incidention matrix – all activities


Czech drug policy and its recent development

Incidention matrix – key activities


Czech drug policy and its recent development

Recent developement


The penal code really that revolutionary

The Penal Code really that revolutionary?

  • January 2010 – Act. No. 40/2009, Coll., the Penal Code

    • has brought changes to the legal definitions of drug-related criminal offences

    • Follow up of the recommendations from the research conducted in 1999-2001 (Impact analysis of the new drug legislation - PAD)

    • lower punishment range refers to the possession of cannabis in a quantity greater than small; other types of drugs carry stricter sentences

    • new provision concerning the illegal cultivation of plants and mushrooms containing a narcotic or psychotropic substances (NPS)

  • January 2010 – Government regulation No. 455/2009, Coll.

    • list of plants and mushrooms containing NPS and their respective quantities for the new Penal Code

  • January 2010 – Government regulation No. 467/2009, Coll.

    • quantities greater than small of NPS for the purposes of the new Penal Code


The penal code really that revolutionary1

The Penal Code really that revolutionary?

  • Law since 1999:

    • makes it again possible to prosecute for the possession of drugs for personal use

    • introduced the concept of “quantities greater than small“

  • Law since 2010:

    • specifies what is “ quantity greater than small“

    • introduces new section - Unauthorized cultivation of plants containing narcotic or psychotropic substances

    • Sanctions for possession of plants were eased and sanctions for possession of other drugsstrengthened


Rationale behind it i

Rationale behind it I.

  • In 1999 - the Czech law makes it again possible to prosecute for the possession of drugs for personal use.

  • Introduced the terminology „quantities grater than small“ as the criterion for distinguishing between misdemeanor and crime

  • What is the „quantity greater than small“ was not clear – there was only a internal recommendation from the police headquarters which was not binding

  • Different praxes took place (in judging the same case)

  • There was a need for united approach – for právní jistota?


Rationale behind it i i

Rationale behind it II.

  • In 1999–2001 - the Impact analysis of new drug legislation (PAD) - to analyze the impacts of the legislative intervention that criminalized the possession of illegal drugs for personal use.

  • Conclusion:

    • With no distinction made between drugs according to their health and social risks, the move proved to be ineffective and caused unnecessary economic and social costs.

  • The Government approved following measures:

    • to approve a bill that divides drugs into categories according to their health and social risks (2006 not passed because of sections on economic crime, 2008 passed)

    • Drug users should be offered drug treatment instead of criminal punishment.

    • The criminal law enforcement agencies should focus particularly on controlling and prosecuting the activities of highly organised criminal gangs.


Rationale behind it i ii

Rationale behind it III.

  • To distinguish between illegal market with marihuana from commertionalised and violent drug market with higher social and health consequences.

  • The outcome would be the better protection of public health and safety with lower availability of marihuana for those who do not use marihuana and for the youngest generation.


The penal code really that revolutionary2

The Penal Code really that revolutionary?

  • Possession of a narcotic drug in any amount including cultivation of marihuana is forbidden by the law in any circumstances,

  • If the illegal drug is possessed for other purposes than personal use it is a criminal offence.

  • If the illegal drug is possessed in quantity greater then small it is a criminal offence,

  • If the illegal drug is possessed in quantity smaller than small it is a misdemeanor


Q uantities greater than small of nps for the purposes of the new penal code

Quantities greater than small of NPS for the purposes of the new Penal Code


P lants and mushrooms containing nps and their respective quantities for the new penal code

Plants and mushrooms containing NPS and their respective quantities for the new Penal Code


Medical cannabis

Medical Cannabis

  • To separate the issue of medical use of cannabis from the issue of misuse/abuse of cannabis

  • Czech authorities are willing to support medical use of cannabis in a way that is in accord with its international commitments

  • A legislative proposal has been prepared

    • Setting the agency

    • Allowing the possibility to import cannabis for medical use and also to cultivate it domestically

    • A special register needs to be established with police to have access to it


Czech drug policy and its recent development

  • PAD – http://www.drogy-info.cz/index.php/o_nas/studie/projekt_analyzy_dopadu_novelizace_drogove_legislativy

  • Annual Report 2009 (comparison of old and new Penal Code) http://www.drogy-info.cz/index.php/english/annual_reports_and_other_main_resources/annual_report_the_czech_republic_2009_drug_situation

  • Evaluation of CZ Drug Policy Strategy http://www.vlada.cz/assets/ppov/protidrogova-politika/dokumenty/narodni-strategie/Evaluacni-zprava_NSPP-2005-2009.pdf


Thanks

Thanks

[email protected]

www.vlada.cz

www.drogy-info.cz


Coordination of the czech d rug p olicy

Coordination of the Czech Drug Policy


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