Ecol 3027 Pollution & EIA
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Ecol 3027 Pollution & EIA. Waste management assessment Fisheries impact assessment Landscape & visual impact assessment Heritage impact assessment Strategic Environmental Assessment EIA : Problems in general . Waste management assessments. Waste Disposal Ordinance Cap. 354 . Types:.

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Ecol 3027 Pollution & EIA

  • Waste management assessment

  • Fisheries impact assessment

  • Landscape & visual impact assessment

  • Heritage impact assessment

  • Strategic Environmental Assessment

  • EIA : Problems in general

Waste management assessments

Waste Disposal Ordinance Cap. 354


  • Construction & demolition waste

  • Municipal waste

  • Chemical waste *

  • Special waste*

    • Clinical waste, livestock waste, animal carcasses, low level radioactive waste…

  • 5. Others*

    • PFA, incinerator ash, dredged mud

* with special requirements for disposal

Waste management assessment (TM Annex 7 & 15)

General principles


  • C & D waste:

  • Avoid or minimize waste generation

  • Reduce cross contamination & promote waste segregation

  • Reuse and recycle (can consider other sites)

  • Materials choice(both construction & operation):

    • Use recycled materials

  • Operational waste:

    • Arrange and facilitate waste recycling

  • Certain waste with special disposal requirements:

    • e.g. chemicalwaste, livestock waste, others…

Example: Disneyland


    • 6.1 Introduction

    • 6.2 Legislation and Guidelines

    • 6.3 Baseline Condition

    • 6.4 Assessment Methodology

    • 6.5 Identification of Potential Environmental Impacts

    • 6.6 Prediction and Evaluation of Environmental Impacts

    • 6.7 Mitigation Measures

    • 6.8 Evaluation of Residual Environmental Impacts

    • 6.9 Environmental Monitoring and Audit

    • 6.10 Conclusion and Recommendations

    • 6.11 Impacts Summary

Example: Disneyland


Tsuen Wan and Outlying Islands Waste Arising District

  • North Lantau Transfer Station (NLTS)

    • Design capacity: 1,200 tpd

No public filling area at the moment

Siu Ho Wan Public Filling Barging Point will be operated by 2004 - next to the NLTS

Example: Disneyland

Identified impacts: waste types

  • Dredged/excavated marine sediment

  • Construction and demolition waste

  • Excavated material

  • Chemical waste

  • General refuse

Example: Disneyland

Impact prediction

1. Dredged and excavated sediment

Example: Disneyland

Impact prediction

gross floor areas (GFA)

Construction and Demolition Material (C&DM)

2. C & D waste

Example: Disneyland

Impact prediction

  • 3. Excavated material

    • recycled e.g. reclamation, landscaping

  • 4. Chemical waste

    • construction phase\ small amount

    • operational phase\ far more

  • 5. General refuse: construction phase

    • food wastes, aluminium cans and waste paper from site offices, canteen, work area

Example: Disneyland

Impact prediction

5. General refuse: operational phase

Example: Disneyland

Impact assessment

  • Dredged and excavated sediment

  • All Class C sediment will be disposal of at East Sha Chau Contaminated Mud Pits

  • Uncontaminated sediment will be disposed of in Fill Management Committee (FMC) allocated dumping site

  • No significant impact envisaged

  • 2. C & D waste

  • Small amount of C & D waste

  • Public fill re-used on site and no surplus is expected

  • No significant impact envisaged

Example: Disneyland

Impact assessment

  • 3. Excavated material

  • Small amount

  • Re-used on site and no surplus is expected

  • No significant impact envisaged

  • 4. Chemical waste

  • Small amount in construction, more in operation

  • Disposed of according to relevant Code of Practices

  • No significant impact envisaged

Example: Disneyland

Impact assessment

  • 5. Municipal waste

  • Small amount in construction phase

  • Operational phase generate 38 – 175 tpd from 04-24, 23-26% will be recycled, others disposed of in landfills through NLTS

  • No significant impact envisaged

Example: Disneyland

Mitigation measures


  • Waste management plans

    • construction and operational phases

    • minimisation, recovery/ recycling, collection, transportation and disposal

2. Waste minimization programme

3. Waste recovery/ recycling programme

Fisheries Impact Assessment (Annex 9, 17)

Aims to protect:

  • Fisheries production

    • capture fisheries & aquaculture production

  • Nursery and spawning ground of commercially important species

  • 3. Fisheries operation, fishing activities


What kind of projects will require FIA?

  • Designated projects that:

    • will physically affect fisheries production or destroy fisheries production sites

    • will directly or indirectly discharges any pollutants that will affect fisheries production

Assessment approach

  • Setting baseline

    • existing and new data

  • Impact prediction

  • Impact evaluation

  • Mitigation

    • avoid, minimize, compensate

    • Monitoring

Example: Disney


Example: Disney

Impact prediction

  • Fishing zones:

    • low direct impact (0.1% lost in value)

    • low indirect impact (SS) (within WQOs)

  • Ma Wan FCZ:

    • SS increase by 4.2 mg L-1 (worse case scenario), < WQO.

  • Impact assessment & mitigation

    • No significant impacts!! No special mitigation!!

Landscape and visual impact assessment

(TM Annex 10, 19)

Assessment approach:

  • Define scope of assessment

  • Baseline study (special landscape features)

    • distinctive landscape features

    • valued landscape

    • other conservation interests

    • specific landscape elements


Assessment approach:

  • Define scope of assessment

  • Baseline study (special landscape features)

  • Review planning & development framework (TPO)

  • Impact identification and prediction

  • Impact mitigation

Assessment criteria

  • Beneficial

  • Acceptable

  • Acceptable with mitigation

  • Unacceptable

  • undetermined

No objective criteria!!

Mitigation measures

Best be done in strategic assessment stage

  • Project level mitigations include:

    • Avoidance: alternative design

    • Reduction: alternative design; screening; colour treatment (e.g. Mai Po)

    • Compensation: landscaping; creation of distinctive landscape character.

Heritage impact assessment (TM Annex 10, 19)

Assessment approach

  • Baseline study

    • Identify sites and detailed information

  • 2. Impact prediction and assessment

    • Preservation in total and enhancement

      • e.g. Kau Sai Chau Golf Course

    • Preservation in part (justifications)

    • Total destruction (justifications)

    • Reference to guidelines on landscape & visual impact assessment

Assessment criteria

  • Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance, Cap. 53

  • No quantitative standard

  • Sites of unique archaeological, historical or architectural value

  • Impacts kept to absolute minimum


  • Avoidance

  • Alternative designs, materials for better integration

  • Total destruction: rescue plane.g. Tin Hau temple, Chek Lap Kok; Happy Valley Banyan Tree

  • Reference also to Annex 18 Landscape

  • Mitigation plan with funding proposal must be provided for total or partial destruction mitigation


TM Annex 7, 9, 10, 15,17,18, 19

  • Waste Management in Hong Kong (Optional)


Disney EIA (Optional)

Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

SEA = EIA of Policies, Plans and Programmes

Policy = an inspiration and guidance for action

Plan = a set of coordinated and timed objectives for the implementation of the policy

Programme = a set of projects in a given area

Above and before project level

Strategic PlanningStrategic planning is another area where environmental impacts are assessed. The EPD oversees Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) with the aim of promoting the full consideration and integration of environmental implications at the early planning stage of major strategic policies. This will help to avoid environmental problems and to identify environmentally-friendly options, rather than mitigating environmental impacts at a later stage which are often not effective nor cost-effective.

EPD Website

Why do we need SEA?

  • Project EIA has many limitations:

    • usually too late

    • reactive, not anticipatory

    • inadequate in assessing cumulative impact

    • unable to account for changes in policies, plans and programmes

    • limited by time availability and spatial scale

  • Environmental problems best resolved/avoided at the planning stage

  • Can speed up project level EIAs

  • Achieve sustainable development

SEA is currently or potentially applied to:

  • International treaties e.g. signing the CBD*

  • Privatization e.g. Housing Department

  • Transnational corporations e.g. traditional Chinese medicine

  • Institutional/ Government restructure

  • National budgets e.g. military expenses

  • Legislative proposals e.g. Town PlanningOrdinance

  • Land-use Planning e.g. regional planning studies in HK

  • Transboundary impacts e.g. pollution in Deep Bay

  • Global issues e.g. Green House Effect; EU examples

  • *CBD: Convention on Biological Diversity

  • Tiering

    • Environmental impacts considered at the most appropriate levels:

      • Policy  Plan  Project

    • Each level refers to the level above

  • Problems

    • Extremely complex

    • Policy, plans & programmes can be very vague

    • Policy, plans & programmes are more political

  •  legal or standardized system very difficult

The SEA process

  • - similar to project EIA but at a broader scale

  • screening

  • scoping

  • baseline description

  • impact prediction and evaluation

  • impact mitigation

  • public consultation

  • reporting

  • decision

  • monitoring and audit





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Example of SEA

EIA – Problems in general

  • Lack of experience (especially true in HK)

  • Lack of training, professionals & professional recognition (HKIEIA)

  • Inconsistent application of EIA e.g. military actions

  • Assessment and post-approval monitoring isolated

EIA – Problems in general

  • Alternatives not seriously considered, too late at project level

  • Viewed as a procedure in development only

  • Cumulative impact often ignored

  • Inadequate socio-economical impact assessment

EIA – Problems in general

  • Publication consultation insufficient (HK is better now)

  • EIA reports very long, too descriptive but weak evaluation

  • Weak evaluation also by the authority especially in ecological IAs

  • Results always favour the applicants, why?

EIA – Problems in general

  • Environmental impact always understated

  • Mitigation measures are mostly cosmetic plans

  • Weak post-approval follow-up i.e. poor EA & M

EIA – Problems in general

  • highly political, more serious in democratic territories

Environmental Protection & Cost

Applicants Government Green groups

Public Public Public

EIA – Problems in general

  • Effectiveness:

    • minor impacts – satisfactory

    • major impacts – not satisfactory

    • pollution impacts – satisfactory

    • ecological impacts – not satisfactory

However, environmental awareness is raised!!!


Partidário, M.R. (1999).Strategic Environmental Assessment: Principles and Potential. In: J. Petts (Editor), pp. 60-73. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment Volume 2 EIA in Practice: Impact and Limitations. Blackwell Science: Oxford.

Thérivel, R. and Lexbrown A. (1999).Methods of Strategic Environmental Assessment.In: J. Petts (Editor), pp.441-464. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment Volume 2 EIA in Practice: Impact and Limitations. Blackwell Science: Oxford.

Au, E.W.K. 2000.Environmental Planning and Impact Assessment of Major Development Projects in Hong Kong. In: Wong, W.S. & Chan, E.H.W. (Editors). Building Hong Kong: Environmental Considerations. Hong Kong University Press: Hong Kong., pp. 257-271. (Given to you in lecture 14)