Ch. 34 Sec. 2. Patterns of Behavior. I. Behavioral Cycles. Many animals respond to periodic changes in the environment with daily or seasonal cycles of behavior. Dormancy 1. Some reptiles and mammals a. Active during warm seasons b. Sleeplike state during cold seasons
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Ch. 34 Sec. 2
Patterns of Behavior
Many animals respond to periodic changes in the environment with daily or seasonal cycles of behavior
1. Some reptiles and mammals
a. Active during warm seasons
b. Sleeplike state during cold seasons
a. Lack of food
b. Other resources not be available
B. Migration - periodic movement from one place to another and then back again
1. EX: Green sea turtles
a. December – June
b. Migrate from feeding grounds to mateand nest
2. Take advantage of favorable environmentalconditions
Fig. 34-8 Page 878 Each year, between December and June, green sea turtles migrate from their feeding grounds along the coast of Brazil to mate and nest on Ascension, a tiny island more than 2000 kilometers away. Like many animals, sea turtles migrate in response to seasonal changes in their environment.
C. Circadian rhythms - behavioral cycles that occur in daily patterns
1. Sleeping at night and being awake during the day
To pass along its genes to the next generation, any animal that reproduces sexually needs to mate with another member of its species at least once. Courtship behavior is part of an overall reproductive strategy that helps many animals identify healthy mates.
b. visual displays
2. May involve a series of behaviors called rituals
a. Performed the same way by all membersof a population
b. Consist of specific signals and responses that continue until mating occurs
1. Form societies
a. Animals of the same species
b. Interact closely
2. Survival Advantages
a. Zebras and other grazers band together
B. Safer from predators
B. Animal societies use strength in numbers
Members of a society are often closely related to one another. Related individuals share a large proportion of each other's genes.
Therefore, helping a relative survive increases the chance that the genes an individual shares with that relative will be passed along to offspring.
1. Most complex societies
2. Hunt together
3. Travel in search of new territory
4. Interact with neighboring societies
1. Occupied and protected by an animal or group
2. Contain resources necessary for survival and reproduction
3. Keeps others at a distance
4. “Owner” may attack a rival and drive it away
B. Competition - when two or more animals try to claim limited resources
1. Many animals use rituals and displays
2. Aggression - threatening behavior that one animal uses to gain control over another
Animals may use visual, sound, touch, or chemical signals to communicate with one another
A. Visual Signals
B. Chemical Signals
a. Mark a territory
b. Signal readiness to mate
2. Affect the behavior of other individuals of the same species
C. Sound Signals
2. Elaborate communication systems
34–2 Patterns of BehaviorAnimal behaviors may occur in patterns. Many animals respond to periodic changes in the environment with daily or seasonal cycles of behavior. Dormancy, migration, and circadian rhythms are examples. Circadian rhythms occur in a daily pattern, such as sleeping at night and going to school during the day.Behaviors can help animals reproduce. Courtship behavior is part of an overall reproductive strategy that helps many animalsidentify healthy mates. Some courtship behaviors include elaborate rituals. Most rituals have specific signals and responses.
Animals have social behavior when they interact with members of their own species. Many animals form societies. A society is a group of related animals of the same species that interact closely and often cooperate with one another. Being a part of an animal society helps improve an individual’s evolutionary fitness. Termites form societies. So do zebras, wild dogs, and primates. Animal societies use “strength in numbers” to better hunt, protect territory, guard young, and fight rivals.
Some animal behaviors keep other animals from using limited resources. These resources may be food, water, or shelter. Such behaviors help protect territories. A territory is the area lived in and protected by an animal or group of animals.Territories have resources that an animal needs to survive and reproduce. Competition occurs when two or more animals claim the same territory. During competition, one animal may use aggression to gain control over another. Aggression is threatening behavior.
Communication is the passing of information from one animal to another. Animals communicate in many ways.• Animals with good eyesight may communicate with visual signals. These signals may include movement and color.• Animals with a well-developed sense of smell communicate with chemicals called pheromones. The chemicals affect the behavior of other members of the species. For example, some animals use pheromones to mark territory.
Animals with strong vocal abilities communicate with sound. Birds, toads, crickets, and dolphins use sound to communicate.• Language is the most complex form of communication. Language combines sounds, symbols, and gestures according to sets of rules about word order and meaning. Onlyhumans are known to use language.