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CSE 301 History of Computing. World War II and the Stored Program Computer. Analog Computers. Instead of computing with numbers, one builds a physical model (an analog) of the system to be investigated Used when a system could not be readily investigated mathematically

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Cse 301 history of computing

CSE 301History of Computing

World War II and theStored Program Computer

Analog computers
Analog Computers

  • Instead of computing with numbers, one builds a physical model (an analog) of the system to be investigated

  • Used when a system could not be readily investigated mathematically

  • Special purpose instruments

  • Their heyday was between WW I & WW II

    • Scaled models of dam projects, electrical grids, the Zuider Zee, California irrigation projects, British weather (yikes)

Analog computers1
Analog Computers

  • Lord Kelvin (1824-1907)(William Thomson)

    • Father of Analog Computing

    • Invented analog tide-predicting machine (1876)

      • Used in thousands of ports throughout the world

    • Many other inventions

Vannevar bush
Vannevar Bush

  • Developed the profile tracer

    • a bicycle wheel with gadgetry for measurement

    • a one-problem analog computer

      • used to plot ground contours

  • During WW II, Bush became chief scientific adviser to Rooservelt

  • Another analog computer he developed was the differential analyzer

Differential analyzer
Differential Analyzer

  • Designed by Vannevar Bush at MIT

    • starting in the 1920s and completed in the early 1930s

  • More of a general purpose computer (still limited)

    • Useful for differential equations

      • Describe many aspects of the physical environment involving rates of change

        • Accelerating projectiles

        • Oscillating electric currents

Differential analyzer continued
Differential Analyzer (continued)

  • Useful for a wide range of science & engineering problems

    • versions built and used to advance knowledge at many Universities

      • including University of Pennsylvania, which led to the modern computer (we’ll see this later)

  • Rockefeller Differential Analyzer completed in 1942 at MIT

    • Massive machine

      • 100-tons

      • 2000 vacuum tubes

      • 150 motors

    • Fell into secrecy during World War II

    • Emerging after WWII, the Differential Analyzer was already obsolete, being replaced by digital computers like ENIAC

Differential analyzer1
Differential Analyzer

The Differential Analyzer (MIT Museum)

Differential analyzer2
Differential Analyzer


Operator’s console of the Differential Analyzer (MIT Museum)

Differential analyzer3
Differential Analyzer

Close-up of wheel and disk

integrators on the machine

(MIT Museum)

Close up of bus rods which carry

variables between different calculating

units (MIT Museum)

Differential analyzer4
Differential Analyzer



Advantages of analog calculation
Advantages of Analog Calculation

  • Ability to solve a given problem numerically even without the ability to find a formal mathematical solution

  • Ability to solve even a very complex problem in a relatively short time

  • Ability to explore the consequences of a wide range of hypothetical different configurations of the problem being simulated in a short period of time

  • Ability to transmit information between components at very high rates

Disadvantages of analog calculation
Disadvantages of Analog Calculation

  • An analog device is not universal.

    • not sufficiently general to solve an arbitrary category of problems

  • It is difficult if not impossible to store information and results.

  • It does not give exact results.

    • Accuracy can vary between 0.02% and 3%

  • The components of an analog computer will function as required only when the magnitudes of their voltages or motions lie within certain limits.

George stibitz
George Stibitz

  • Electrical Engineer at Bell Labs

  • Constructed digital electronic calculator out of odds and ends in his Kitchen (1937)

    • called it the “Model-K”

    • did binary arithmetic

    • used lights to display result

  • Bell Labs saw the potential

    • Completed Stibitz Complex Number Calculator in 1939

  • Would be the foundation for most digital computers

  • http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/Stibitz.html

Who invented the computer
Who invented the computer?

  • The Candidates:

    • Zuse? (Z1-Z4)

    • Flowers/Turing? (COLOSSUS)

    • Atanasoff/Berry? (ABC Computer)

    • Eckert/Mauchly? (ENIAC/EDVAC)

    • Von Neumann? (EDVAC)

    • Newman/Williams? (Manchester Baby)

    • Wilkes? (EDSAC)

Ww ii

  • At start of WW II (1939)

    • US Military was much smaller than Axis powers

    • German military had best technology

      • particularly by the time US entered war in 1941

    • US had great industrial potential

      • twice the steel production as any other nation

  • A military and scientific war

    • Outcome was determined by technological developments

      • atomic bomb, advances in aircraft, radar, code-breaking computers, and many other technologies

Konrad zuse
Konrad Zuse

  • German Engineer

  • Z1 – built prototype 1936-1938 in his parents living room

    • did binary arithmetic

    • had 64 word memory

  • Z2

    • called by some first fully functioning electro-mechanical calculator/computer

  • Z3 (1941)

    • used by German’s Aircraft Institute

    • Z3 was a stored-program computer

  • Z1 – Z3 were electromechanical computers

    • destroyed in WWII, not rebuilt until years later

The z4
The Z4

  • A digital, electronic computer

  • A stored program computer

  • Never could convince the Nazis to put it computer to good use

  • Smuggled to Switzerland in a military truck

  • Not completed until years after the War

  • A forgotten computer.

  • After the War, Zuse was left behind. Why?

    • the accelerated pace of American/English technological advances

    • the destruction of German infrastructure

English code breaking
English Code-breaking

  • Alan Turing works at Bletchley Park on breaking the German Enigma Code

  • Made up of a set of rotors to translate and a reflector.

  • Input letter using keys

  • Output letter shown with lights

Enigma example
Enigma Example


After one letter is encoded, the first rotor rotates one position.

Once the first rotor rotates one whole turn, the second rotor rotates one position, ...


  • Germans had another cipher for ultra-top-secret communications called Geheimfernschreiber (secret telegraph)

    • The allies called this the “Fish”

  • Designed a machine called COLOSSUS that could break the Fish code in 1943

  • A digital electronic computer

    • 1800 vacuum tubes

  • Theoretical design by Alan Turing

  • Practical design by Tommy Flowers


from Tony Sale,

original curator of the Bletchley Park Museum

The atanasoff berry computer abc
The Atanasoff-Berry Computer(ABC)

  • By John Vincent Atanasoff (designer) and Clifford Berry (his grad student, the builder) at Iowa State University during 1937-42

    • the first US electronic digital computer?

    • used binary arithmetic

    • parallel processing

    • separation of memory and computing functions

  • How did Atanasoff get the idea?

    • Iowa was a dry state, so he drove 189 miles to Illinois and got a drink of bourbon at a roadhouse

    • neon lights sparked the idea

John vincent atanasoff
John Vincent Atanasoff

  • 1903-1995

  • Given $650 to start work on his ideas of an electronic computer in 1937.

  • Was called to war effort at the Naval Ordinance Lab in Washington DC

    • had to give up ABC

  • Returns in 1948 to Iowa State to find the ABC dismantled.

  • Receives the National Medal of Technology from President George Bush in 1990


Clifford Berry with the ABC (Ames Laboratory, DOE)

Mauchly and eckert
Mauchly and Eckert 1939.





The birth of eniac
The Birth of ENIAC 1939.

  • Collaboration between Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania and the Ballistic Research Laboratory in Aberdeen, MD

  • Both sites had Bush Differential Analyzers

  • UPenn’s DA was faster but not fast enough for the amount of computation needed to compute trajectory tables

  • Dr. John W. Mauchley of the Moore School visits Atanasoff at Iowa State to learn about his research in electronic computing in 1941

Mauchly and eckert create eniac
Mauchly and Eckert create ENIAC 1939.

  • Mauchly returns and works with Dr. J. Presper Eckert on creating an electronic computer to solve differential equations for the Ordinance Dept.

  • In 1943, the Ordinance Dept. signs a contract for UPenn to develop an electronic computer based on the plans of Mauchly and Eckert

    • Eckert – chief engineer

    • Mauchley – principal consultant

    • presented by Lt. Herman H. Goldstein, mathematician

  • Constructed completed in the fall of 1945 after WWII ends, and dedicated in February 1946.

Eniac electronic numerical integrator and computer
ENIAC 1939.Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer

  • This is the most important computer we’ve discussed so far

    • It’s creation commonly called the birth of modern computers

    • Speed left Mark I behind

      • 5000 vs. 3 calculations per second

    • it is the first true ancestor of all computers used today

    • In it’s lifetime, it will do more computing than than the entire human race had done before 1945

  • Filled an entire room

    • 42 panels, each 9’ X 2’ X 1’, three on wheels

    • organized in a U shaped around the perimeter of a room with forced air cooling

  • Weighed 30 tons

  • Reportedly consumed 150-200 kW of power

  • Contained a huge amount of parts:

    • approx. 19,000 vacuum tubes

    • 1500 relays

    • over 100,000 resistors, capacitors and inductors

  • Input and output via an IBM card reader and card punch

Eniac electronic numerical integrator and computer1
ENIAC 1939.Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer


(Virginia Tech –

History of Computing)

Advantages and disadvantages of eniac
Advantages and Disadvantages of ENIAC 1939.

  • Advantage:

    • Speed in calculation of ballistic trajectories:

      • Human with hand calculator: 20 hours

      • Bush Differential Analyzer: 15 minutes

      • ENIAC: 30 seconds

        • “could calculate the trajectory of a speeding shell faster than the shell could fly”

  • Disadvantages:

    • Programming took very long

      • plugging in patch cables and setting 3000 switches

    • Vacuum tubes would burn out quickly

      • In 1952, 19,000 tubes were replaced  ~50 per day!

    • Small memory limited the types of problems ENIAC could solve – used mercury delay lines

    • Used decimal system

Who created the first electronic computer
Who created the first electronic computer? 1939.

  • "...With the advent of everyday use of elaborate calculations, speed has become paramount to such a high degree that there is no machine on the market today capable of satisfying the full demand of modern computational methods. The most advanced machines have greatly reduced the time required for arriving at solutions to problems which might have required months or days by older procedures. This advance, however, is not adequate for many problems encountered in modern scientific work and the present invention is intended to reduce to seconds such lengthy computations..." - from the ENIAC patent (No. 3,120,606), filed 6/26/47.

  • On October 19, 1973, US Federal Judge Earl R. Larson signed his decision following a lengthy court trial which declared the ENIAC patent of Mauchly and Eckert invalid and named Atanasoff the inventor of the electronic digital computer -- the Atanasoff-Berry Computer or the ABC.

Eniac s spawn
Eniac’s Spawn 1939.

  • Computer experts from America & Britain attended lectures on ENIAC/EDVAC

    • Britain was one of the only European nations not ravaged by war

    • Attendees spawned constructions

    • Manchester Baby Computer (1948)

    • Cambridge University’s EDSAC (1948)

  • Von Neumann’s IAS Computers

  • Eckert & Mauchly’s BINAC & UNIVAC

  • The Moore School’s EDVAC (completed in 1952)

  • IBM & Columbia’s Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator

  • Lots of others


John von neumann
John von Neumann 1939.

  • 1903-1957

  • born in Budapest, Hungary

  • a child prodigy

    • at age 6, could divide 8-digit numbers in his head

  • fled persecution of Jews in Hungary

  • renowned mathematician at Princeton

John von neumann1
John von Neumann 1939.

  • During WWII, he served as a consultant to the armed forces.

  • Contributions:

    • proposal of the implosion method for bringing nuclear fuel to explosion

    • participation in the development of the hydrogen bomb

    • guess what? more calculating necessary

  • Member of the Navy Bureau of Ordinance 1941-1955

    • chance meeting with Herman Goldstine, introducing him to the ENIAC project

    • visited ENIAC team and observed its use, including its deficiencies

    • Interested in project, he became an advisor to the group to help develop a new design

      • new design was the “stored-program” computer

The stored program concept
The stored-program concept 1939.

  • Instructions and data were to be stored together in the same memory unit

    • Example: ADD #100, R1 1000 0001 ADD to R1 0110 0110 data 100

    • Example: ADD @100, R1 1001 0001 ADD to R1 0110 0110 data at address 100

  • Instructions were stored in memory sequentially with their data

  • Instructions were executed sequentially except where a conditional instruction would cause a jump to an instruction someplace

  • Fetch-Decode-Execute

  • Binary switching circuits for computation and control

  • This is how all modern-day computers work

    • Called the von-Neumann machine

    • Eckert & Mauchly were furious it was not named after them

      • They claimed it was their idea first, but could not implement it during the war due to time constraints

  • The stored program concept1
    The stored-program concept 1939.






    The edvac report
    The EDVAC Report 1939.

    • Stored-program concept is the fundamental principle of the EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer)

    • Although Mauchly and Eckert are generally credited with the idea of the stored-program, von Neumann publishes a draft report that describes the concept and earns the recognition as the inventor of the concept

      • “von Neumann architecture”

        • some Germans might say Zuse had this idea first

      • A First Draft of a Report of the EDVAC published in 1945

      • http://www.wps.com/projects/EDVAC/

    EDVAC 1939.

    from U.S. Army Research Laboratory


    John von neumann2
    John von Neumann 1939.

    Hungarian stampin his honor

    von Neumann with his firstIAS computer

    from the Archives of the Institute for Advanced Study

    John von neumann s death
    John von Neumann’s death 1939.

    ... his mind, the amulet on which he had always been able to rely, was becoming less dependable. Then came complete psychological breakdown; panic, screams of uncontrollable terror every night. His friend Edward Teller said, "I think that von Neumann suffered more when his mind would no longer function, than I have ever seen any human being suffer." Von Neumann's sense of invulnerability, or simply the desire to live, was struggling with unalterable facts. He seemed to have a great fear of death until the last... No achievements and no amount of influence could save him now, as they always had in the past. Johnny von Neumann, who knew how to live so fully, did not know how to die.

    S J Heims, John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener:

    From mathematics to the technologies of life and death(Cambridge,MA, 1980).

    Back in england
    Back in England 1939.

    • Max Newman and F.C. Williams build the Manchester Baby Computer in 1948 and demonstrate the feasibility of the stored-program concept.

      • first von Neumann computer to become operational

    • Maurice Wilkes attends the Moore School Lectures in 1946 and builds EDSAC at Cambridge University

      • first practical stored-program computer

      • 32 memory delay lines

      • 3000 vacuum tubes (1/6 of ENIAC)

      • 30 kW of electric power

    Manchester baby computer
    Manchester Baby Computer 1939.

    Replica of “Baby” from 1998, from University of Manchester

    Manchester baby computer1
    Manchester Baby Computer 1939.

    revised version of the first program run on the Baby, written by Tom Kilburn,

    from University of Manchester

    EDSAC 1939.


    EDSAC I, from University of Cambridge