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CS2100 Computer Organisation http://www.comp.nus.edu.sg/~cs2100/. Introduction to Computer Organisation (AY2013/2014) Semester 2. Overview. The Big Picture Brief History of Computer Current Trend The Course (2 nd Part) Von Neumann Architecture Instruction Set Architecture

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Cs2100 computer organisation http www comp nus edu sg cs2100

CS2100 Computer Organisationhttp://www.comp.nus.edu.sg/~cs2100/

Introduction to Computer Organisation

(AY2013/2014) Semester 2


Overview

Overview

  • The Big Picture

    • Brief History of Computer

    • Current Trend

  • The Course (2nd Part)

    • Von Neumann Architecture

    • Instruction Set Architecture

    • Compilation Flow

    • Instruction Execution Flow

Computer Organisation


The brief history of computers

The Brief History of Computers

Computer Organisation


The brief history supercomputer

The Brief History: Supercomputer

[ CS5222 Adv. Comp. Arch. AY1314S2 ]


The brief history 2012 embedded

The Brief History: 2012 – Embedded

  • Everywhere

    • Smart-phone

    • Game consoles

    • DVD / Blue-Ray player

    • Car, Fridge, Washing Machine……… etc etc

Computer Organisation


Summary from a few to many n

2000 - 2011

100M – 2.2B

1970 - 1980

2K – 100K

1980 - 1990

100K – 1M

1990 - 2000

1M – 100M

Summary: From a few to manyn

Transistor is the building block of CPU since 1960s

Current World Population = 7Billion

about the number of transistors in 3 CPU chips!

Computer Organisation


Summary from big to small

80286

1982

1.5 µm

Pentium 4

2000

0.180 µm- 0.065 µm

Core i7

2010

0.045 µm- 0.032 µm

Pentium

1993

0.80 µm- 0.25 µm

Summary: From BIG to small

Process size = Minimum length of a transistor

Wave length of visible light = 350nm (violet) to 780nm (red)

Process size now smaller than wavelength of violet light!

Computer Organisation


Summary from s l o w to fast

80286

1982

1.8 MIPS*

Core i7

2011

120 GFLOPS #

Pentium

1993

200 MFLOPS#

Pentium 4

2000

4 GFLOPS#

Summary: From S-L-O-W to fast

FLOPS = FLoating-point Operation Per Second

Computer Organisation


Summary the age of computer

Summary: The Age of Computer

  • Unprecedented progress since late 1940s

  • Performance doubling ~2 years (1971-2005):

    • Total of 36,000X improvement!

    • If transportation industry matched this improvement, we could have traveled from Singapore to Shanghai, China in about a second for roughly a few cents!

  • Incredible amount of innovations to revolutionize the computing industry again and again

Computer Organisation


Moore s law

Moore’s Law

  • Intel co-founder Gordon Moore "predicted" in 1965 that Transistor density will double every 18 months

Computer Organisation


Processor performance increase

PROCESSOR PERFORMANCE INCREASE

Computer Organisation


The three walls

The Three Walls

  • Three major reasons for the unsustainable growth in uniprocessor performance

  • The Memory Wall:

    • Increasing gap between CPU and Main memory speed

  • The ILP Wall:

    • Decreasing amount of "work" (instruction level parallelism) for processor

  • The Power Wall:

    • Increasing power consumption of processor

Computer Organisation


The power wall

The Power Wall

  • We can now cramp more transistor into a chip than the ability (power) to turn them on!

Computer Organisation


Current state of computer

Current State of Computer

  • Multicore is the future

    • All PC chip manufacturers have abandoned unicore development

    • Expect to have more cores in a single chip

    • Parallel programming is more important than ever

  • Great opportunity for computing professional

    • New programming model is required

    • Parallelising existing software

    • Innovative ways to tap into the computing power

Computer Organisation


2 nd part of cs2100

So, what do we get to learn?

2nd Part of CS2100

Computer Organisation


Computer organization vs architecture

Computer Organization vs Architecture

  • Computer Organization:

    • Electronic Engineer's view of a computer system

  • Computer Architecture:

    • Assembly Programmers' view of a computer system

      • High level abstract view

  • This course aims to:

    • Give an indepth understanding of the inner working of a computer system

    • Concentrate on conceptual understanding rather than hardware implementation

Computer Organisation


Von neumann architecture

Control

Cache

Input

Output

Registers

Von Neumann Architecture

  • Proposed by John Von Neumann et al, 1945

  • Major components of a computer system:

    • Processor, Memory and Devices

    • Buses for transporting data between component

  • Stored-Memory Concept:

    • Data and program are stored in memory

Bus

Processor

Memory

Devices

Data Path

Computer Organisation


Components of computer

Components of Computer

Computer Organisation


Example inside your desktop

Example: Inside Your Desktop

Computer Organisation


Example inside your laptop

Example: Inside Your Laptop

Computer Organisation


How do we control the hardware

How do we "control" the hardware?

  • You write programs in high level programming languages, e.g., C/C++, Java:

  • Compiler translates this into assembly language statement:

  • Assemblertranslates this statement into machine language instructions that the processor can execute:

A + B

add A, B

  • 1000 1100 1010 0000

Computer Organisation


Isa interface between hw sw

Applications

Operating

System

Compiler

Firmware

Processor

Memory organization

I/O system

Datapath & Control

Digital Design

Circuit Design

Layout

ISA – Interface between HW & SW

Software

Programming Languages,

Compilers,Operating Systems,

Software Engineering

Instruction Set Architecture

Hardware

PART 2

PART 1

Electronic

Engineering

Computer Organisation


Instruction set architecture isa

Instruction Set Architecture (ISA)

  • Instruction Set Architecture (ISA)

    • A subpart of computer architecture that is related to programming, as seen by the programmer and compiler

  • ISA exposes the capabilities of the underlying processor as a set of well defined instructions

    • Serves as the interface between hardware and software

    • Serves as an abstraction which allow freedom in hardware implementations

Computer Organisation


Instruction set architecture examples

Instruction Set Architecture - Examples

  • Observe that each ISA has a family of chips i.e. multiple hardware implementations

Computer Organisation


Instruction set architecture issues

Instruction Set Architecture - Issues

  • ISA Design Issues:

    • Organization of programmable storage

    • Data types and data structures:

      • Encoding and representations

    • Instruction formats

    • Modes of addressing and accessing data items and instructions

    • Exceptional conditions

Computer Organisation


The life of a program

Program in

High-level language

(C, Pascal, etc)

Link multiple

machine-language programs

to one program

Compile program

into assembly language

Load program into

computer’s memory

Assemble program

to machine language

Execute program

The Life of a program

Computer Organisation


Code execution

CODE EXECUTION

  • Instruction Execution Cycle in the Processor:

Computer Organisation


Road map for 2 nd part tentative

Road Map for 2nd Part (Tentative)

  • Processor Performance (10)

  • Assembly language (11, 12, 13)

  • The Processor:

    • Datapath(14)

    • Control (15)

  • Pipelining (16)

  • Memory hierarchy:

    • Cache (17, 18)

  • Input/Output(19)

Computer Organisation


Reading assignment

Reading Assignment

  • Computer Abstractions and Technology

    • Read up COD sections 1.1 – 1.3.

Computer Organisation


Cs2100 computer organisation http www comp nus edu sg cs2100

End

Computer Organisation


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