The roman army
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THE ROMAN ARMY. Why was it so important?. How was the Roman Army organised?. Main part of the army was the LEGION This was made up of 5000 men under the command of the LEGATUS. How the Roman Army was organized. The legion was divided into ten cohorts

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The roman army


Why was it so important?

How was the roman army organised

How was the Roman Army organised?

  • Main part of the army was the LEGION

  • This was made up of 5000 men under the command of the LEGATUS

How the roman army was organized

How the Roman Army was organized

  • The legion was divided into ten cohorts

  • Each cohort was made up of six centuries

  • The centuries were commanded by a centurion

  • Centuries originally had 100 men

How the roman army was organised

How the Roman Army was organised

  • The centurions were very important men

  • They were responsible for training the soldiers under their command and making sure everyone obeyed orders.

  • Some were very cruel

Standard bearers

Standard Bearers

  • Each century had its own emblem or standard.

  • This was carried by the standard bearer, a very experienced and trusted soldier

  • To lose your standard was a great disgrace

How to become a legionaire

How to become a Legionaire!

  • You had to be a Roman citizen

  • You had to be physically fit and 1.6m tall

  • You were expected to stay in the army for 25 years

What was he paid

What was he paid?

  • They earn 225 denarii/year (up to 300 under Domitian)

  • Food, clothing and equipment were subtracted from the salary

  • Some money was placed in a bank for his retirement

  • Probably received 20-25% of his pay

Retirement and promotion

Retirement and Promotion

  • Soldiers could be promoted to optio or centurion

  • Promotion meant more pay and duty exemptions

  • Upon retirement a soldier could expect a lump-sum payment of 3000 denariior land!



  • Most soldiers joined between 18-20 years old

  • There were three 22 mile marches each month

  • On each march the legionairewould carry 90 lbs of equipment



  • Legionaries would also learn drill, or marching

  • This was important for learning manoeuvres in battle

  • New recruits were given shields and swords twice as heavy as the real thing!



  • Gladius (short sword)

  • Pilus (spear)

  • Pugio (dagger)

  • Scutum (shield)



  • Loricasegmentata (armor made from metal strips)

  • Cingulum (military belt)

  • Caligae (military sandals)

  • Helmet

  • Short leggings (Late Empire)

Who else was in the army

Who else was in the Army?

  • Auxiliaries- These were soldiers from lands conquered by the Romans who volunteered to fight for the Romans

  • Many ofthese had special skills- like cavalry soldiers and archers



  • Archers

  • Most fought with a sword and short spear

  • Thought of by Romans as second class soldiers , paid less and not trained as rigorously

  • After 25 years- they became Citizens (and their children too!)

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