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STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM. STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM. ELECTRON - the NEGATIVE particles surrounding the nucleus of an atom. discovered by JOSEPH JOHN THOMPSON. STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM. PROTON – positively charged particle in the nucleus of the atom Discovered by Eugene Goldstein. STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM.

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structure of an atom1
STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM
  • ELECTRON - the NEGATIVE particles surrounding the nucleus of an atom.
  • discovered by JOSEPH JOHN THOMPSON
structure of an atom2
STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM
  • PROTON – positively charged particle in the nucleus of the atom
  • Discovered by Eugene Goldstein
structure of an atom3
STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM

NEUTRON – a neutral subatomic particle present in the nucleus of an atom

Discovered by James Chadwick in 1932

dalton s atomic theory has the following postulates
DALTON’S ATOMIC THEORY has the following postulates.

1) Matter is made up of extremely small indestructible particles called atoms.

2) All atoms of a given element are alike

John Dalton – English chemist that proposed the first atomic theory in 1803

dalton s atomic theory has the following postulates1
DALTON’S ATOMIC THEORY has the following postulates.

3) Atoms enter into combination with other atoms to form compounds, but remain unchanged during ordinary chemical reactions.

4) Atoms can combine in simple numerical ratios such as 1:1, 1:2, 2:3 and so on.

Dalton’s Atomic Model

dalton s atomic theory gives sufficient explanation to the three laws of chemical combination
Dalton’s atomic theory gives sufficient explanation to the Three Laws of Chemical Combination.

Law of Conservation

of Mass

There is no detectable change in the masses of substances before and after the course of an ordinary chemical reaction. Mass is conserved.

Dalton’s 3rd postulate

laws of chemical combination explains mass relationships in chemical reactions
Laws of Chemical Combination explains mass relationships in chemical reactions.

Law of Definite

Proportions or composition.

A pure compound always contains the same elements combined in the same proportions or percentage by mass.

% C = Mass of C / mass of CO2 x 100

% O = Mass of O/ mass of CO2 x 100

Dalton’s 2nd and 3rd postulate

laws of chemical combination explains mass relationships in chemical reactions1
Laws of Chemical Combination explains mass relationships in chemical reactions.

Law of Multiple

Proportions

When two elements combine to form more than one compound, the masses of one element which combine with a fixed mass of the other element are in a ratio of SMALL whole numbers

  • H2O (water)
  • H2O2 (Hydrogen peroxide)
  • Mass O = 16 g
  • Mass of H = 1 g
  • Since the
  • Atom of oxygen always has the same mass
  • Ratio = 2:1
sample atomic structure
Sample Atomic Structure

Hydrogen: a proton surrounded by an electron cloud

A Hydrogen Atom

slide24

35

Cl

17

slide26

Hydrogen Atomic Mass = 1 Atomic Number = 1

Deuterium  Atomic Mass = 2  Atomic Number = 1

Two isotopes of hydrogen

references
References
  • http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/AtomicStructure/AtomicStructure.html
  • http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/3-atoms.htm
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