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Chapter 15. By Lenie Ventura(: . Witches:. (1400-1700s) Between 70,000 and 100,000 people were killed for being a witch. A majority of witches were women and fell into 3 specific categories: 1.) Widows 2.) Midwives 3.)Female healers or herbalists. . Baroque Art:.

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Chapter 15

Chapter 15

By Lenie Ventura(:


Witches
Witches:

  • (1400-1700s)

  • Between 70,000 and 100,000 people were killed for being a witch.

  • A majority of witches were women and fell into 3 specific categories:

  • 1.) Widows 2.) Midwives 3.)Female healers or herbalists.


Baroque art
Baroque Art:

  • A 17th century art style focused upon paintings, sculptures, and architecture.

  • People were painted in a more natural way.

  • Mostly seen in: Roman Catholic settings (ex: the Vatican) and absolute rulers (ex: King Louis XIV’s Versailles).

  • Some Major artists were Bernini, Rubens


Pre revolutionary europe
Pre- Revolutionary Europe

  • 1.) The aristocratic elites inherited legal privileges.

  • 2.) Churches were established that tied into the state and the aristocracy.

  • 3.) Urban labor forces were organized into guilds. (Def: Guilds: any of various medieval associations, as of merchants or artisans, organized to maintain standards and to protect the interests of its members, and that sometimes constituted a local governing body.)

  • 4.) Peasants that pay high taxes and feudal payments.


Nobility in europe
Nobility in Europe:

  • England- 400 families (made up the House of Lords)

  • -no specific legal benefits but were often local leaders.

  • France- 400,000 nobles.

  • -top nobles = top appointments.

  • -MANY legal privileges (ex: no land tax payments).


Aristocratic resurgence
Aristocratic Resurgence:

  • 1: Did not make it easy for people to become nobles.

  • 2: Top appointments were for nobles.

  • 3: Tried to work together to limit the king’s power.

  • 4: tried to improve their economy by raising taxes.


Enclosure movement
Enclosure Movement:

  • 1.) Small farmers sell to big farmers.

  • 2.) Farms get bigger.

  • 3.) People become workers on the larger farms.

  • 4.) Old farmers move to the cities.


Agricultural revolution
Agricultural Revolution:

People move to cities.

Farms get bigger.

More food is produced.

Poor people move into cities.

A new wealthy class of nobles is created.


Two new crops and methods
Two New Crops and Methods

Two new crop methods:

Crops:

  • potatoes and clover plants

open field and closed field method.


The industrial revolution
The Industrial Revolution:

A period in the late 18th century that was the turning point in the ideas of transportation, textile, and metal manufacturing.


New developments
New Developments:

  • The spinning Jenny- helped people spin cotton faster in a more complex fashion of machinery to make yarn.

  • The Water Frame- A machine to turn cotton into yarn that was powered by water and was the very first industrial device.

  • The steam engine-Very first engine that was powered by coal and was the building structure for modern tractors. It also helped transport both goods and ideas to different locations.



Impact of the industrial revolution
Impact of the industrial revolution:

  • Women- they were able to get more jobs in factories and jobs were lost as well.

  • The growth of cities- Population began to increase rapidly in high numbers.


Major people
Major People:

  • JethroTull- Came up with the method of planting crops with drilling and iron plows

  • James Hargreaves- Created the spinning jenny

  • Richard Arkwrighit- Created the Water Frame

  • Thomas Newcomen- Early steam engine.



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