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Hardware-Assisted Isolated Computing Environments. Instructor: Kun Sun, Ph.D. Outline. Introduction Related Work Our Work on Hardware-assisted ICE x86 platform SecureSwitch : OS level isolation [NDSS12] ARM platform TrustICE : Flexible ICE [under submission] Summary.

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outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Related Work
  • Our Work on Hardware-assisted ICE
    • x86 platform
      • SecureSwitch: OS level isolation [NDSS12]
    • ARM platform
      • TrustICE: Flexible ICE [under submission]
  • Summary
why isolated computing environment
Why Isolated Computing Environment?
  • Bring your own device (BYOD)
    • Risk of data breaches
    • Require an ICE to separate sensitive code and data
  • Suspicious code or data
    • Trojan, e.g., BitCoinMiner, Keylogger
    • Run the code in an ICE to protect the host environment
  • Malware analysis
    • Rootkits compromises OS
    • Protect the analysis tools in an ICE

http://www.technologyreview.com/sites/default/files/legacy/belt_b_x220.jpg

http://b.vimeocdn.com/ts/419/611/419611391_640.jpg

lampson red green system model
Lampson Red/Green System Model

Red/Green system: Policy + Isolation + Accountability +Freedom

* Butler Lampson, Accountability and Freedom Slides, Microsoft, Sept.,2005

outline1
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Related Work
  • Our Work on Hardware-assisted ICE
    • x86 platform
      • SecureSwitch: OS level isolation [NDSS12]
    • ARM platform
      • TrustICE: Flexible ICE [under submission]
  • Summary
software based ice solutions
Software-based ICE Solutions
  • * From 1999 to 2009, 373 vulnerabilities affecting virtualization solutions. --- “IBM X-Force 2010 Mid-year trend and risk report”
outline2
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Related Work
  • Our Work on Hardware-assisted ICE
    • x86 platform
      • SecureSwitch: OS level isolation [NDSS12]
    • ARM platform
      • TrustICE: Flexible ICE [under submission]
  • Summary
secureswitch architecture
SecureSwitch Architecture
  • BIOS-assistant OS Level Isolation
    • no data leakage between two OS environments
    • without using any mutable software layer (e.g., hypervisor)
    • no changes of the OS source code
    • fast switching time, around 6 seconds

Trusted Computing Base (TCB) only contains the BIOS.

bios uefi and coreboot
BIOS, UEFI, and Coreboot
  • Basic Input/Output System (BIOS)
    • Initializing hardware components.
    • Stored in non-volatile ROM chips.
  • Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI)
    • A new software interface between OS and firmware.
    • Partially open source
  • Coreboot (formerly as LinuxBIOS)
    • Similar functionality as UEFI
    • Open source
acpi sleeping states
ACPI Sleeping States
  • Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI)
    • OS-directed configuration; Power/thermal management
  • Global System States
    • G0 --- Working (System Operational)
    • G1---Sleeping (CPU stopped)
    • G2 ---Soft Off
    • G3 ---Mechanical off (Physical off switch)
  • Sleeping States in G1: S0 – S5
    • S3: also called Standby, Suspend to RAM
      • DRAM still maintained
    • S4: also called Hibernation or Suspend to Disk
      • DRAM not maintained
  • Device Power States: D0 – D3
    • D0 - Fully-On
    • D3 -- Power off to device
attack model
Attack Model
  • Assumption
    • BIOS and option ROM on devices can be trusted.
    • No physical access to the protected machine
  • Attacks from the untrusted OS
    • Spoofing Trusted OS attacks: faking trusted OS
    • Data exfiltration attacks: stealing sensitive data
    • Cache-based side channel attacks: extracting sensitive data
  • Out of the scope
    • Denial of Service attacks
    • Network attacks on trusted OS
trusted path
Trusted Path
  • Protect against Spoofing trusted OS attacks by assuring users that they are working with the OS they intend to use.
    • Protecting system variables
      • OS_Flag: records which OS should be woken next
      • Where to save it?
    • Untrusted OS should be truly suspended.
      • hardware controlled power LED lights up when system is powered on, and blinks in the sleep mode.
    • BIOS should be entered.
      • Press the power button.
  • OS_Flag: physical jumper, e.g., Parallel port connector
system isolation
System Isolation
  • CPU Isolation: two OSes never run concurrently.
  • Memory Isolation: physical-level isolation
  • Hard disk isolation: encrypted hard disk, RAM disk
  • Other I/O isolation: clean the buffers/states in devices.
memory isolation
Memory Isolation
  • A motherboard may have more than one dual in-line memory module (DIMM) slot.
  • DIMM Mask and DQS Setting
    • BIOS uses “DIMM_MASK”variable to control which DIMMs to be enabled.
    • BIOS sets “data strobes”(DQS) parameters to enable DDR RAM memory access.
memory isolation1
Memory Isolation
  • Physical-level memory isolation ensured by BIOS
    • Two OS environments run in separate DIMMS.
  • BIOS only enables one DIMM for each OS.
    • Two DQS settings for two OSes
    • “DIMM_MASK” controlled by the physical jumper.
  • System software, except the BIOS, cannot initialize or enable DIMMs after the system boots up
      • Transient state of DQS setting
      • If “DIMM_MASK”has conflicts with DQS setting, system crashes
hard drive isolation
Hard Drive Isolation
  • Hard disk encryption
    • Two hard disks, one for each OS
    • Disk lock in ATA specification
    • Need TPM to save the encryption key
  • RAM disk
    • For browser-based application, save a small amount of temporary data in the RAM
prototype
Prototype
  • Hardware
    • Motherboard: ASUS M2V-MX_SE
    • CPU: AMD Sempron 64 LE-1300
    • DDR2: Kingston HyperX 1GB
    • HDD: Seagate 500GB
  • Software
    • BIOS: Coreboot + SeaBIOS
    • Trusted OS: Linux (Centos 5.5)
    • Untrusted OS: Windows XP
linux suspend time breakdown
Linux Suspend Time Breakdown

User Space : 1517.33 ms

Kernel Space: 1590.14 ms

linux wakeup time breakdown
Linux Wakeup Time Breakdown

Kernel Space: 1537.22 ms

User Space: 621.04 ms

outline3
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Related Work
  • Our Work on Hardware-assisted ICE
    • x86 platform
      • SecureSwitch: OS level isolation [NDSS12]
    • ARM platform
      • TrustICE: Flexible ICE [under submission]
  • Summary
arm trustzone
ARM TrustZone
  • Two isolated domains
    • Secure/un-secure CPU States
    • Virtual MMU/Secure Memory
    • TrustZone-Aware interrupt controller
  • Traditional solutions
    • Rich OS and un-secure apps in normal domain
    • Secure OS and secure apps in secure domain
  • Limitations
    • Trusted Computing Base (TCB) is large
    • No flexible
      • No isolation between secure Apps.
      • No protection on non-secure Apps.

TraditionalSolutions

trustice flexible ices
TrustICE: Flexible ICEs
  • Basic Idea: Create ICEs in normal domain, instead of secure domain
  • A Trusted Domain Controller (TDC) enforces the isolation and secures the switching
  • Benefits:
    • Small TCB: TDC + Secure boot
    • Multiple ICEs
      • Self-contained code
      • Microkenel with necessary modules
      • full-featured OS
    • Flexible
      • Easy to deploy third-party software
      • Vendor Apps still in secure domain
outline4
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Related Work
  • Our Work on Hardware-assisted ICE
    • x86 platform
      • SecureSwitch: OS level isolation [NDSS12]
    • ARM platform
      • TrustICE: Flexible ICE [under submission]
  • Summary
summary
Summary
  • Our Work on Hardware-assisted ICE
    • SecureSwitch: BIOS-based ICE on x86platform
      • OS level isolation with small TCB
      • Small switching time
    • TrustICE: TrustZone-based ICE on arm platform
      • Flexible multiple ICEs
      • Small TCB
references
References
  • P. Barham, B. Dragovic, K. Fraser, S. Hand, T. Harris, A. Ho, R. Neugebauer, I. Pratt, and A. Warfield. Xen and the art of virtualization. In SOSP ’03: Proceedings of the nineteenth ACM symposium on Operating systems principles, pages 164–177, New York, NY, USA, 2003. ACM Press.
  • J. McCune, B. Parno, A. Perrig, M. Reiter, and H. Isozaki. Flicker: An execution infrastructure for TCB minimization. In Proceedings of the 3rd ACM SIGOPS/EuroSys European Conference on Computer Systems 2008, pages 315–328. ACM, 2008.
  • J. M. McCune, Y. Li, N. Qu, Z. Zhou, A. Datta, V. Gligor, and A. Perrig. TrustVisor: Efficient TCB reduction and attestation. In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 2010.
  • AmitVasudevan, Bryan Parno, Ning Qu, Virgil D. Gligor, Adrian Perrig. Lockdown: Towards a Safe and Practical Architecture for Security Applications on Commodity Platforms. TRUST 2012.
  • Ahmed Azab, Peng Ning, Xiaolan Zhang, SICE: A Hardware-Level Strongly Isolated Computing Environment for x86 Multi-core Platforms, in Proceedings of 18th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS11), October 2011.
  • Fengwei Zhang, Jiang Wang, Kun Sun, Angelos Stavrou, "HyperCheck: A Hardware-Assisted Integrity Monitor," IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 17 Dec. 2013. IEEE computer Society Digital Library.
  • Kun Sun, Jiang Wang, Fengwei Zhang, and Angelos Stavrou, SecureSwitch: BIOS-Assisted Isolation and Switch between Trusted and Untrusted Commodity OSes. In the Proceedings of the 19th Annual Network & Distributed System Security Symposium (NDSS), San Diego, California, 5-8 February 2012.
  • Y. Fu and Z. Lin. Space Traveling across VM: Automatically bridging the semantic gap in virtual machine introspection via online kernel data redirection. In Proceedings of the 33rd IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 2012.
  • X. Jiang, X. Wang, and D. Xu. Stealthy malware detection through vmm-based out-of-the-box semantic view reconstruction. In Proceedings of the 14th ACM conference on CCS, 2007.
  • T. Leek, M. Zhivich, J. Gin, and W. Lee. Virtuoso: Narrowing the semantic gap in virtual machine introspection. In Proceedings of the 32nd IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 2011.
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